Immersion words and teachings

Try your hand at pronouncing these.

Gwi wisen ne?  – Will you eat?

Gwi wisen ne ode mbop? – Will you eat this soup?

Gwi byéwisen ne ode mbop? – Will you come eat this soup?

Maji – To leave

Nmaji – I leave

Nwi maji – I will leave

Nwi maji ngom – I will leave today

Nwi maji wabek – I will leave tomorrow

Nwi odanké – I will go to town

Mnekwé – To drink

Gmnekwé – You drink

Ggi mnekwé – You drank

Ggi mnekwé ne? – Did you drink?

Ggi mnekwé ne ode mshimnabo – Did you drink this apple juice?

Wisen/Wisne – To eat

Nwisen – I eat

Gwisen – You eat

Wisne – He/she eats

Nwi wisen – I will eat

Gwi wisen – you will eat

Wi wisnet – He/she will eat

Nwi wisen ode mbop – I will eat this soup

Gwi wisen ne ode mbop? – Will you eat this soup?

Wi wisnet o kwé – The woman will eat

Bidgé – To enter

Nbidgé – I enter

G bidgé – You enter

Wbidgét – He/she enters

Nwi bidgé – I will enter

Nwi bidgé wabek – I will enter tomorrow

Wabek nwi bidgé i wigwam – Tomorrow I will enter the house

Independent Indicative

Nmaji – I leave

Gmaji – You leave

Majiwag – He/she leaves

Nmajimen – We (-) leave

Gmajimen – We (+) leave

Gmajim – Y’all leave

Majik/Majiwak – They leave

Conjunct Indicative

Majiyan – as I leave

Majiyen – as you leave

Majit – as he/she leaves

Majiygo – as we (-) leave

Majiyak – as we (+) leave

Majiyék – as y’all leave

Majiwat – as they leave

Imperative

Majin – Leave!

Majik – Leave, y’all!

Independent Indicative

Nminké – I pick berries

Gminké – You pick berries

Minkéwag – He/she picks berries

Nminkémen – we (-) pick berries

Gminkémen – we (+) pick berries

Gminkém – y’all pick berries

Minkéwat – they pick berries

Conjunct Indicative

Minkéyan – as I pick berries

Minkéyen – as you pick berries

Minkét – as he/she picks berries

Minkéygo – as we (-) pick berries

Minkéyak – as we (+) pick berries

Minkéyék – as y’all pick berries

Minkéwat – as they pick berries

Imperative

          Minkén! – Pick berries!

          Minkék – Pick berries, y’all!

Independent Indicative

Nzhya – I go

Gzhya – you go

Zhyéwag – he/she goes

Nzhyamen – we (-) go

Gzhyamen – we (+) go

Gzhyam – y’all go

Zhyéwat – they go

Conjunct Indicative

Zhyayan – as I go

Zhyayen – as you go

Zhyét – as he/she goes

Zhyaygo – as we (-) go

Zhyayak – as we (+) go

Zhyéwat – as they go

Imperative

          Zhyan – Go!

          Zhyak – Go, y’all!

Independent Indicative

Njibdep – I sit

Gjibdep – you sit

Jibdebe – he/she sits

Njibdebmen – we (-) sit

Gjibdebmen – we (+) sit

Gjibdebem – Y’all sit

Jibdebwik – They sit

Conjunct Indicative

Jibdebyan – as I sit

Jibdebyen – as you sit

Jibdebet – as he/she sits

Jibdebygo – as we (-) sit

Jibdebyak – as we (+) sit

Jibtebwat – as they sit

Imperative

          Jibdeben – sit!

          Jibdebek – sit, y’all!

Independent Indicative

          Nwisen – I eat

          Gwisen – you eat

          Wisnet – he/she eats

          Nwisnemen – we (-) eat

          Gwisnemen – we (+) eat

          Gwisnem – y’all eat

          Wisnewat – They eat

Conjunct Indicative

          Wisneyan – as I eat

          Wisneyen – as you eat

          Wisnet – as he/she eats

          Wisneygo – as we (-) eat

          Wisneyak – as we (+) eat

          Wisneyék – as y’all eat

          Wisnewat – as they eat

Imperative

          Wisnen! – Eat!

          Wisnek! – Eat, y’all!

Nda zhya zhi wabek. – I should go there tomorrow

Biskemwenen nda gishpnedon – I should buy clothes

Biskemwenen nda je gishpnenan wabek iw pi nda je zhyayan – I should buy clothes when I go wherever

Ngi zhadgé wnago – I stayed home yesterday

Jayék géwinwa gi zhyéwat zhi mawjeshnowen – All of them went there to the meeting

Mawjeshnowen gi zhyéwat zhi jayék géwinwa ma shna nin se wi zhe gi zhadgéyan – They all went there to the meeting, but as for me, I stayed home.

Nge mbyégé ode seshmowen – I’m about to write this language

Gi bémadsejek wi wawidawat ode – Those people will read this

Gi bémadsejek wi wawidwat i seshmowen émbyégéyan – Those people will read this language that I write.
odanek nwi zhya – I will go to town

Nwi chikaz tadiwgemek – I will play at the casino

Odanek nwi zhya échikazyan tadiwgemek – To town I will go to play at the casino

Nwi chikaz ibe tadiwgemek ezhyayan zhi odanek – I will play at the casino when I go there to town

Medagwendan dnekmegzewen – I like the game

Ngi wato bégishek – I had fun all day

Medagwendan ode dnekmegzewen égi watoyan bégishek – I like this game that I’ve had fun with all day.

Gwi bazmyagwes ne? – Do you stink?

Gishpen ébon gzindyé’en – If you don’t wash your butt.

Gwi kche bazmyagwes ne gishpen ébon gete gzindyéyen? – Will you really stink if you don’t really wash your butt?

Ni je pi ga majiyen? – When are you leaving?

Gwi wisen ne bwamshe émajiyen? – Will you eat before you leave?

Ni je pi gwi majiyen ne wabek mine gwi wisneyen bwamshe emajiyen – when are you leaving tomorrow?  And will you eat before you leave?

Gge wisnemen ebokbetoyak nomek ode she pi! – Let’s eat as we take a break at this time

Gwi bokbetomen ewisneyak – We will break to eat

Ekendaswiyak wnago ebmadsiwyak ngom ekenomageyak se she wabek – We learn yesterday to live for today and to teach for tomorrow.

Gi mnopkwet ne ga je wisneyen – Was it delicious what you ate?

Wégni je ga mijyen – What did you eat?

Wégni je o ga wjandat? – Who cooked?

Mno gigenokwé ne yawe ne o? – Is she a good cook?

Gdo zam shkené ne? – Did you eat too much?

Mgabéwes ne – Are you fat?

Widmoshen bgéji wni éyawyen – Tell me a little about yourself

Wégni – What

Wégwni – What

Ni je – What

Wéni – What

Ni je wi je – how

Ni je ne – how

Ni je wéj – why

Ni pi je – where

Ni je pi – When

Ni jew pi – when

Ni jo pi – When

Iw pi – When (statement)

Iw pi ezhyayan zhi – When I go there

Ni je pi ezhyayen – When are you going

Ni pi je ezhyayen – where are you going

Ni je o ezhyat – Who is going

Ni je wi je ezhyayen – how are you going

Ni je weje ezhyayen zhi – Why are you going there

Ni je wa zhechkéyen ébyayen zhi – What will you do when you get there

Ni je étse mekwiyen étoyen – How many dollars do you have?  (How much money do you have?)

Wégwni je ga dbegéyen – How much were you paid?

Ni je wi je wa zhyayan zhi – How do I get there?

Wégwni je o ga zhechkét ode – Who did this?

I yé o gigabé ga zhechkét i – It was that boy who did it

I yé o ne gigabé – Is that the boy?

Éhe ode gigabé yawe – Yes this is the boy

I yé o ne g’os – is that your father?

Ehe o n’os yawe – yes that’s my father

I yé o ne gmeshomes – is that your grandfather

Ehe o nmeshomes yawe – yes that’s my grandfather

I yé o ne gdogmam – is that your tribal chairman

Ehe o ndogmam yawe – yes that’s my tribal chairman

I yé o ne gdenim – is that your husband?

Ehe o ndenim yawe – yes that’s my husband

I yé ne gi gnijansek – are those your kids

Ehe gi nijansek yawik – yes those are my kids

I yé ne gi getsimnek – are those your parents

Ehe gi ngetsimnek yawik – yes those are my parents

I ye ne gdo zhonyam – is that your money?

Wete she gete yawen i! – heck yeah it is!

I ye ne gdo dabyanem – is that your car?

Ehe ndo dabyan yawen – yes that’s my car

Ni je éshewébzet o mbibis – what’s the matter with the baby

Ni je ga zhegnonat – who called

Ni je o – who is that

Ni je pi ga shegnonat o – when did he call

Wegwni je ga je nedwendat – what did he want

Ne je etso pongesyen = how old are you

Kyetnam kiwadmen – I really miss you

Nkiwadmen – I miss you

Nswewabtek shech nyannen ndetse ponges – I am 35 (I have seen 35 winters)

Cho she gdebendawen yawen i – That’s none of your business

Gi widmo ne o ga kedyan – did you tell him what I said?

Mendokaswenen yawen wa je zhechkéyak pkonyak – A ceremony it is what we will do tonight

Debendagwes – I am enrolled, I belong

Shkapkesgen – Stove

Wdmagze – he/she is pitiful

Ngetmages – I am pitiful

Getmages ne? – are you pitiful?

A simple prayer

One person’s idea of a prayer which can be learned rather quickly.

Mine ngot ode Madmowen

Hau Mesho

Oh Grandfather

Mine gode Meshomsenanek

And these Grandfathers of ours

Mine Nokmeskignan

And our Grandmother Earth

Mine Gosnan jak gego ga gish tot

And our Father/Creator He who made everything

Ewip setwiyak

Listen to us

Ematmoyak enotmen

Prayers hear them from us

Ewi step miyak/wi jew yak

Go along with us

Ni zhok mo wiyak

Help us

Jayek shna ewi ni zhok ma goygo

All of us need help

Mno bmatsewen endoj geygo

A good life we ask for

Endot moygo gosnan mine nig an zi men

We are asking our Father and His helpers

Mishkwezwen, mnobmadsewen, mnowidoktadwen ewi ndoj geygo

Strength of purpose, a good life, good community interaction, we are asking for

Gwi doda men, mnobmadsewen, mishkwezwen ewi noy go nigan ji igwan

A good feeling, a good life, strength of purpose give us up ahead

Mine nizhok moshen

And help me

Gwi matmo towamen ________________________________

We are going to pray for (person prayed for)

Ewi mish kwezet

So h/s will be strong

Ewi mnobmadset

And will have a good life

Gwi mina egazge bmadsewen

Give a long life/or eternal life

Gwi mina ode sema nan o Gosnan

Going to give tobacco to our Father

Nde penmomen ode sema ewi ni zhok magoygo

Depend on we this tobacco to help us

Nde penmomen ode Neshnabewen ewi ni zhok magoygo

Depend on we this Indian Way to help us

Nde penmomen ode matmowen ewi ni zhok magoygo

Depend on we this prayer to help us

Nde penmomen ode mdodowen ewi ni zhok magoygo

Depend on we this sweat lodge to help us

I gwien jak gego etoyak

Thank you everything we have

Nde chiwenmomen jak gego etoyak

We are happy for all that we have

Igwien ode gmowen

Thank you for this rain

Nedwen damen ode pwagen ewi ni zhok magoygo

Want we this pipe to help us

Nedwen damen ode gemwen ewi ni zhok magoygo

Want we this song to help us

Nedwen damen gode gemwenen ewi ni zhok magoygo

Want we these songs to help us

Nedwen damen ode shkwede ewi ni zhok magoygo

Want we this fire to help us

Nedwen damen ode migwen ewi ni zhok magoygo

Want we this feather to help us

Nedwen damen ode dewegen ewi ni zhok magoygo

Want we this drum to help us

Nedwen damen jak gego egi mingoyak ewi ni zhok magoygo

Want we everything we’ve been given to help us

I ye i enajdoyak ngom ewi mno zheweb ziyak pene

That is what we ask today that we may always do good

Shna epamseyak ode myewen egi mingoyak ebmadziyak shote se otaki

As we walk this road we’ve been given while we live in this world

Iw enajmoyan se odo pi

That is what I have to say at this time

Some facts on Language Learning

Seven principles of input based language learning.


Seven principles of input based language learning.

1) We learn languages by listening, not by speaking.

A new language has words and phrases that are strange to us. Before we can learn to speak the new language, we have to make these strange words and phrases familiar to us. All learning consists of creating new patterns in our brain.  Language learning is no different. We have to listen to the language in order to form these new patterns in our brain. We cannot generate these new patterns from within. They must come from an external source, the native speaker. The greater our interest in the native speaker, or what he or she has to say, the better we can learn a new language.

2) Language learning is a gradual, morphing and unpredictable process.

It takes time to form these new patterns in our brains. The process is not linear, nor is it a step by step process. It is random and unpredictable. As more and more new patterns are layered onto our brains, the language gradually becomes clearer and clearer. Some new words and patterns resist our efforts to learn them, until suddenly they just click in.

3) Meaning is easier to learn than grammar.

Words, phrases and meaning are easier to learn than grammar. The reason is that new words and phrases can be associated with concepts we already have. Often grammatical rules in a new language are different from the patterns that we are using for our first language. Even if these new rules are explained, they are difficult to remember or apply, because our established patterns interfere. That is why it is easier to focus on meaning, and listening, and gradually let the language penetrate our brains.

4) When we read, we are also listening and speaking.

Reading is a powerful way to learn languages. When we read in a foreign language we vocalize. We are, in fact, speaking the sounds of the words, and listening to ourselves. We have the added advantage of seeing a visual form of the words, which helps us remember them.

5) Listening prepares us for reading.

As we listen, we gradually get a better and better sense for the sounds and rhythms of the new language. This helps us when we read, and, as pointed out above, when we listen to ourselves read. As beginner and intermediate learners, we should use the same texts for our listening and reading, and avoid doing the one without the other.

6) Learning to notice, and noticing to learn.

The brain learns a lot on its own, naturally, without us noticing. But for some aspects of the language, and often some of the most basic aspects, we need to help the brain to notice. Error correction, including noticing one’s own errors, grammar explanations, word and phrase review, focusing on certain phrases while listening, highlighting certain words and phrases in texts, tagging or labeling certain words and phrases, are all ways to help us notice aspects of the language that are hard to remember. Noticing is best done while listening and reading. Deliberate noticing, divorced from listening and reading, should be a minor component of language learning. It is useful in making us more attentive to the language, but does not help us learn as effectively as listening and reading.

7) When we speak we should focus on listening and noticing.

We should start speaking when we feel we have something to say, and want to speak, and not before. It is best to avoid artificial classroom activities like role playing or other situations that involve speaking with non-native speakers. The reason is that speaking is an excellent opportunity to listen and notice how the native speaker uses the language, and to notice the gaps in our own use of the language.

Ahau nasena biskonyek wi ksenya gaga

Biskonyé –                                           To get dressed

Giskonyé –                                           To get undressed

Askonyé –                                            To change clothing

Nde biskonyé                                       I am getting dressed

Nwi biskonyé                                       I will get dressed

Nda biskonyé                                       I should get dressed

Nge biskonyé                                       I am about to get dressed

Ngi biskonyé                                        I got dressed

Nwi giwé éwi askonyéyan                     I will go home and change clothes

Ngi giwé égi askonyéyan                      I went home to change clothes

Gi giwé o égi askonyét                          H/s went home to change clothes

Ngi giskonyé                                        I undressed

Ngi giskonyémen                                 We (not you) undressed

Ggi giskonyémen                                 We (and you) undressed

Gi giskonyé                                          H/s undressed

Ggi giskonyé                                        You undressed

Ggi giskonyém                                     Y’all undressed

Ggi gisknoyék                                      They undressed

Nwi bisken ode biskewagen                  I will put on this shirt

Nwi gisken ode biskewagen                  I will take off this shirt

Bisken i biskewagen                             Put on that shirt

Gisken i biskewagen                             Take off that shirt

Askon i biskewagen                              Change that shirt

Biskewagen/Biskewagnen                     Shirt/shirts

Biskewagas                                          Small shirt/blouse

Gokmedas/Gokmedasen            Sock/socks  

Zhabwegokmedasen                             sheer stockings

Mkesen/Mkesnen                                 Shoe/Shoes

Bitokniyan                                           Underwear

Gbedi/Gbediyen                                   Pants

Gishkgbedisen                          Shorts

Gishkgnegwéwiyan                              Vest                 Gishkgnegwéwiyanen – pl.

Mjegodé                                               Dress

Moshwé/Moshwénen                            Shawl/Shawls

Moshwék                                             Shawls – animate while dancing

Biskemwenen                                       Clothing

Bbegoyan                                            Cloth

Babkoyan                                            Cloth

Waboyan                                             Blanket

Mjedasen/Mjedasnen                Leggings/Tights

Azyan                                                  Breechcloth/Diaper

Wiwkwan                                            Cap

Déswiwkwan                                       Hat

Wiwkwébsowen                                   Headscarf

Nabkowaken                                        Necklace (could also be scarf)

Nabshebzowas/nabshebzowasen Earring/Earrings

Tepnéwé’en                                         Ring

Dbenjiwen                                           Ring

Kejibsowen                                          Belt

Génwégi                                              Long Coat

Mejkawen/Mejkawnen              Mittens

Nanisigneji/Nanisignejik                       Gloves

Agem/Agmen                                       Snowshoes

Agmek                                                 Snowshoes – animate when used

Tkenagen                                             Cradleboard

Tkwenagen                                          Shoulder yoke

Shkemot                                              Purse/Bag

Prefixes…       

Mskwa biskewagen                              Red shirt

Mkedé biskewagen                              Black shirt

Wizaw biskewagen                              Yellow shirt

Skebgya biskewagen                Green shirt

Wejabkwa biskewagen            Blue shirt

Wejepkwaték biskewagen                    Purple shirt

Wab biskewagen/Wabshkya biskewagen                      White shirt

Wezamskwewa biskewagen     Orange shirt

Jak nadé biskewagen               All colored shirt

Mané nadénon biskewagen                  Many colored shirt

Zhabwa biskewagen                            See-thru shirt

Zenba biskewagen                               Ribbon shirt

Win age biskewagen                Dirty shirt

Bin age biskewagen                 Clean shirt

Wshkew biskewagen                New shirt

Ni pi je ndo biskemwenen?                   Where are my clothes?

Taswenek éwi mkanayan ndo biskemwenen       I will find my clothes in the closet

Nwi bisken ndo wshkew mjegodé                      I will put on my new dress

Nde ton ndo nabkowaken                                  I have my necklace (could also be scarf)

Cho nde tosin ndo génwégi                   I don’t have my long coat

Nde tonen ndo mjedasnen                                 I have my leggings

Cho nde tosinen ndo mkesnen               I don’t have my shoes

Nwi bisken ndo wizawbiskewagen                    I will put on my yellow shirt

Nwi gisken ndo winagze biskewagen     I will take off my dirty shirt

Nwi bisken ndo kejibsowen                   I will put on my belt

Ngi bisken ndo kejibsowen                               I put on my belt

Ngi gisknen ndo mkedéwmkesnen         I took off my black shoes

Nde askon ndo gbediyen                                   I am changing my pants

Nde askonen ndo gokmedasen                           I am changing my socks

Biskemok ni gbiskewagnewan                           Put on your coats (plural)

Giskemok ni gbiskewagnewan                          Take off your coats (plural)

Biskew gi nanisignejik                                      Put on your gloves (plural an.)

Giskew gi nanisignejik                                      Take off your gloves (plural an.)

Bijdasén                                   Put on your socks!  (sing.)

Bijdasék                                   Put on your socks!   (pl.)

Gichdasén                                Take off your socks!  (sing.)

Gichdasék                                Take off your socks!   (pl.)

Bidkesnén                                Put on your shoes!  (sing.)

Bidkesnék                                Put on your shoes!   (pl.)

Gitkesnén                                Take off your shoes!   (sing.)

Gitkesnék                                Take off your shoes!   (pl.)

Yabje bidkesnén                       Hurry and put on your shoes! (S.)

Yabje bidkesnék                       Hurry and put on your shoes! (pl.)

Askonyén                                Change your clothes!   (sing.)

Askonyék                                Change your clothes!   (pl.)

Gizhokwneyén                         Dress warm!     (sing.)

Gizhokwneyék                         Dress warm!    (pl.)

Some words for today

Édebwétagwziyék jayék ézhechkéyék ngom énedwéndeman!

Some words for this uncertain time.

Gégo zam nibweken béshoch! Don’t stand too close!

Gbakwnen I gdon. Cover your mouth.

Gbakwnen I gdon épich jachamyen. Cover your mouth when you sneeze.

Zam manek bmadzejek ibe. There are too many people over there.

Mteno nish wak bmadzejek bidek dawéwgemgok. Only 200 people in the store.

Doskwen mteno- Elbow only.

Gzibinenjén- Wash your hands!

Gshatgén! Stay home (telling one person)

Gshatgék! You all stay home. ( telling more than one person)

Gégo dagneshiken- Don’t touch me.

Gégo dagnakén o kékyat. Don’t touch that elder.

Nasena ézhechkéyen. Be careful what you are doing.

Nasena gishpen Gde-zhya odanek. Be careful if you are going to town.

Ni pi je ézhyayen? Where are you going?

Cho nde-zhyasi ngoji. I am not going anywhere.

Gde-mishatso- You are dressed up fancy.

Konegé, Wisnedawéwgemgok nde-zhyamen. Yes we are going to the grocery store.

Égme gishek gda-bgedna o séma mine madmoyen. Every day you should put down some tobacco and pray.

Please navigate through this awesome site

Folks, I have posted many an interesting topic on the Potawatomi language on this site, but one must be careful to search the site thoroughly. I often post things related to subjects I have taught to various classes online through Zoom. So scroll through the site until you find whatever is of interest to you and keep in mind the panels on the side contain even more topics related to our language.

I will sometimes post old stories which we call atsokanen in the Potawatomi language and sound files regarding songs and teachings we have done on various subjects pursuant to the Potawatomi culture and language.

Hau, nin se Neaseno.

Ode Gizos Msenegen

Ode Gizos Msenegen

We are currently in the month/Moon Wzawbogya kizes

Some areas use different words for their months or moons….

We also use a 13 moon calendar with a 28 day cycle, which is older and more in keeping with the traditions of yesteryear.

Ode Gizos Msenegen

This moon Paper or calendar in English

different calendars for various regions

Months:

MKO kIzES Bear Moon January

MKO kIzOS Little Bear Moon February

JEJAuK kIzES Crane Moon March

MZHWÉ kIzES Rabbit Moon April

DÉMEN kIzES Strawberry Moon May

MZHIKÉ kIzES Turtle Moon June

WiSHKet DAMEN kIzES Sweet Corn Moon July

MINKÉ kIzES Blueberry Picking Moon August

wZAWBOGYA kIzES Yellow Leaf Moon September

BNAKWI kIzES Leaves Falling Moon October

PNÉ kIzES Turkey Moon November

pON kIzES Snow Moon December

Days of the weeks:

NEMÉw kISHÉK Prayer day Sunday

Ngot kishÉk one day Monday

Nizh kishÉk two day Tuesday

NswÉ kishÉk three day WeDnESday

NyÉw kishÉk four day Thursday

nyano kishÉk Five day Friday

Odanké kishÉk town day Saturday

Verbs

A List of Common Action Verbs

  1. Zhechké                      To Do
  2. Giwé                            To Go Home
  3. Giwsé                          To Hunt
  4. Ktege                          To plant  (h/s plants)
  5. Bidgé                          To Enter
  6. Zagjesé                       To Go Outside
  7. Mnekwé                     To Drink
  8. Wanké                        To Dig
  9. Wénkwéngé               To Drive
  10. Zgabyenge                 To steer, to drive
  11. Binjegé                       To Clean
  12. Gwdemojgé                To Fish
  13. Déwé’gé                     To Drum
  14. Gemo                          To sing  (h/s sings)
  15. Bmadgé                      To Swim
  16. Minké                         To Gather Berries
  17. Biskonyé                     To Get Dressed
  18. Giskonye                     To get undressed
  19. Kewabnoje                 To watch children  (babysitting)
  20. Gzhadawso                Another babysitting
  21. Migadi                         To Fight
  22. Mikchéwi                    To Work
  23. Anoki                          To work for hire
  24. Maji                             To Leave/Go
  25. Bsegwi                        To Get Up/Rise
  26. Nim’edi                       To Dance
  27. Chikaso                       To Play
  28. Bkeso                          To Bathe/to swim  (h/s bathes0
  29. Kedo                           To Say
  30. Neshnabémo             To Speak Indian Language
  31. Zhya/zhye                   To Go
  32. Bya/bye                       To Come/Arrive
  33. Wdema                       To Smoke
  34. Wdeme                       Another way to say to smoke
  35. Wisne                          To Eat
  36. Jibtebe                       To Sit
  37. Nibwe                         To Stand
  38. Bose                            To Ride
  39. Ye                                To be in a certain place
  40. Yawe                           State of being  (h/s is)
  41. Mzhena                      To seize, lay hold of
  42. Mawdo                       To gather
  43. Pkebna                       To pick, to reach up
  44. Dapna                         To pick, to reach down
  45. Dkobjege                    To close a circle, to end things
  46. Debnek                       Reach for s.t.
  47. Bgedna                       to put down s.t., to lay s.t. down
  48. Mdomneke                 To bead
  49. Gokpenage                 To make baskets
  50. Zisbakdoke                 To make sugar
  51. Msenagseke               To go to the movies, to make pictures
  52. Wjanda                       To cook
  53. Gigeno                        To cook
  54. Bmose                         To walk
  55. Bmepto                       To run
  56. Tkemse                       To cross over
  57. Bebamse                     To walk around, to walk about
  58. Zhonyamke                To have money
  59. Odanke                       To shop, to go to town
  60. Msenege                    to charge things, as in credit
  61. We’e, We’uh               To loan, to give credit
  62. Dbege                         To pay s.t.
  63. Dawe                           To buy and sell
  64. Gishnena                    To buy as in commercial buying
  65. Gishpnedo                  To buy, to shop
  66. Kigdo                          To speak, talk
  67. Nendek                       To think a certain way
  68. Nenmat                      To think a certain way about s.o.
  69. Nendem                      To think
  70. Nagdewenmat           To think of s.o.
  71. Nagdewendek           To think of s.t.
  72. Gchenenmat              To think a lot of s.o.
  73. Mba/mbe                    To sleep
  74. Nweshmo                   To rest
  75. Ensestek                     To understand
  76. Enseto                        To reason
  77. Nbwaka                      To reason
  78. Bsegwi                        To rise
  79. Doki                            To awake
  80. Bkezo                          To bathe, shower
  81. Gzinge                        To wash up
  82. Binchege                    To clean
  83. Binakchege                To clean
  84. Wawida                      To read
  85. Wawijge                     To read
  86. Wab                            To see
  87. Wabma                       To see s.o.
  88. Wabdan                      To see s.t.
  89. Mina                           To give
  90. Mingo                         To receive
  91. Shema                         To feed
  92. Shemgo                      To be fed
  93. Gzinwnage                 To wash dishes
  94. Bgedna                       To allow s.o. to do s.t.
  95. Bgednon                     To allow s.t.
  96. Binakwe’o                  To comb hair
  97. Gziyabde’o                 To brush teeth
  98. Mneschege                To put things in order, housework
  99. Doma                          To call s.o.

100.Giwse                         To hunt

Animate Action Verbs – Independent Indicative

Simply put, this is the one subject, one verb sentence.  I go, I walk, I run.  This basic pattern is one that you will need to recognize as we go forward.

Independent Indicative Verbs – The Short Form

            Nin (I)                         N + verb

            Gin (you)                    G + verb

            Win (he/she)              verb

            Ninan (we – )               N + verb + men

            Ginan (we + )              G + verb + men

            Ginwa (you pl.)          G + verb + m

            Winwa (they)             verb + k

The first 19 verbs on the previous list end with an “é” sound.  These verbs are considered regular “é” verbs, and are the easiest to work with.  Here are some examples:

            Ngiwé                         I go home

            Ggiwé                         You go home

            Giwé                            He/she goes home

            Ngiwémen                  We (-) go home

            Ggiwémen                  We (+) go home

            Ggiwém                      You (pl.) go home

            Giwék                          They go home

Verbs 21 – 26 are “i” verbs, and are formed in this example:

            Nmikchéwi                 I work

            Gmikchéwi                 You work

            Mikchéwi                    He/she works

            Nmikchéwimen          We (-) work

            Gmikchéwimen          We (+) work

            Gmikchéwim              You (pl.) work

            Mikchéwik                  They work

Verbs 27 – 30 are “o” verbs, and are formed as in this example:

            Nked                           I say

            Gked                           You say

            Kedo                           He/she says

            Nkedmen                    We (-) say

            Gkedmen                    We (+) say

            Gkedom                      You say (pl)

            Kedwik                       They say

Verbs 31 – 34 are irregular verbs.

            Nzhya                          I go

            Gzhya                          You go

            Zhyé                            He/she goes

            Nzhyamen                  We (-) go

            Gzhyamen                  We (+) go

            Gzhyam                       You (pl.) go

            Zhyék                          They go

            Nbya                           I come

            Gbya                            You come

            Byé                              He/she comes

            Nbyamen                    We (-) come

            Gbyamen                    We (+) come

            Gbyam                        You (pl) come

            Byék                            They come

            Ndodma                     I smoke

            Gdodma                      You smoke

            Wdemé                       He/she smokes

            Ndodmamen              We (-) smoke

            Gdodmamen              We (+) smoke

            Gdodmam                  You (pl.) smoke

            Wdemék                     They smoke

Some further words and examples in conjugation.

            Nwisen                       I eat

            Gwisen                        You eat

            Wisne                          He/she eats

            Nwisnemen                We (-) eat

            Gwisnemen                We (+) eat

            Gwisnem                    You (pl.) eat

            Wisnik                         They eat

            Njibtep                       I sit

            Gjibtep                        You sit

            Jibtebe                       He/she sits

            Njibtebmen                We (-) sit

            Gjibtebmen                We (+) sit

            Gjibtebem                  You (pl) sit

            Jibtebwak                  They sit

            Nnibwe                       I stand

            Gnibwe                       You stand

            Nibwe                         He/she stands

            Nnibwemen               We (-) stand

            Gnibwemen                We (+) stand

            Gnibwem                    You (pl.) stand

            Nibwek                       They stand

            Nbos                           I ride

            Gbos                           You ride

            Bose                            He/she rides

            Nbosmen                    We (-) ride

            Gbosmen                    We (+) ride

            Gbosem                      You (pl.) ride

            Boswik                        They ride

Additional suffixes…

-wak, -wek, and –wik often appear at the end of Win and Winwa verb forms.