Try your hand at pronouncing these.
Gwi wisen ne? – Will you eat?
Gwi wisen ne ode mbop? – Will you eat this soup?
Gwi byéwisen ne ode mbop? – Will you come eat this soup?
Maji – To leave
Nmaji – I leave
Nwi maji – I will leave
Nwi maji ngom – I will leave today
Nwi maji wabek – I will leave tomorrow
Nwi odanké – I will go to town
Mnekwé – To drink
Gmnekwé – You drink
Ggi mnekwé – You drank
Ggi mnekwé ne? – Did you drink?
Ggi mnekwé ne ode mshimnabo – Did you drink this apple juice?
Wisen/Wisne – To eat
Nwisen – I eat
Gwisen – You eat
Wisne – He/she eats
Nwi wisen – I will eat
Gwi wisen – you will eat
Wi wisnet – He/she will eat
Nwi wisen ode mbop – I will eat this soup
Gwi wisen ne ode mbop? – Will you eat this soup?
Wi wisnet o kwé – The woman will eat
Bidgé – To enter
Nbidgé – I enter
G bidgé – You enter
Wbidgét – He/she enters
Nwi bidgé – I will enter
Nwi bidgé wabek – I will enter tomorrow
Wabek nwi bidgé i wigwam – Tomorrow I will enter the house
Nmaji – I leave
Gmaji – You leave
Majiwag – He/she leaves
Nmajimen – We (-) leave
Gmajimen – We (+) leave
Gmajim – Y’all leave
Majik/Majiwak – They leave
Majiyan – as I leave
Majiyen – as you leave
Majit – as he/she leaves
Majiygo – as we (-) leave
Majiyak – as we (+) leave
Majiyék – as y’all leave
Majiwat – as they leave
Majin – Leave!
Majik – Leave, y’all!
Nminké – I pick berries
Gminké – You pick berries
Minkéwag – He/she picks berries
Nminkémen – we (-) pick berries
Gminkémen – we (+) pick berries
Gminkém – y’all pick berries
Minkéwat – they pick berries
Minkéyan – as I pick berries
Minkéyen – as you pick berries
Minkét – as he/she picks berries
Minkéygo – as we (-) pick berries
Minkéyak – as we (+) pick berries
Minkéyék – as y’all pick berries
Minkéwat – as they pick berries
Minkén! – Pick berries!
Minkék – Pick berries, y’all!
Nzhya – I go
Gzhya – you go
Zhyéwag – he/she goes
Nzhyamen – we (-) go
Gzhyamen – we (+) go
Gzhyam – y’all go
Zhyéwat – they go
Zhyayan – as I go
Zhyayen – as you go
Zhyét – as he/she goes
Zhyaygo – as we (-) go
Zhyayak – as we (+) go
Zhyéwat – as they go
Zhyan – Go!
Zhyak – Go, y’all!
Njibdep – I sit
Gjibdep – you sit
Jibdebe – he/she sits
Njibdebmen – we (-) sit
Gjibdebmen – we (+) sit
Gjibdebem – Y’all sit
Jibdebwik – They sit
Jibdebyan – as I sit
Jibdebyen – as you sit
Jibdebet – as he/she sits
Jibdebygo – as we (-) sit
Jibdebyak – as we (+) sit
Jibtebwat – as they sit
Jibdeben – sit!
Jibdebek – sit, y’all!
Nwisen – I eat
Gwisen – you eat
Wisnet – he/she eats
Nwisnemen – we (-) eat
Gwisnemen – we (+) eat
Gwisnem – y’all eat
Wisnewat – They eat
Wisneyan – as I eat
Wisneyen – as you eat
Wisnet – as he/she eats
Wisneygo – as we (-) eat
Wisneyak – as we (+) eat
Wisneyék – as y’all eat
Wisnewat – as they eat
Wisnen! – Eat!
Wisnek! – Eat, y’all!
Nda zhya zhi wabek. – I should go there tomorrow
Biskemwenen nda gishpnedon – I should buy clothes
Biskemwenen nda je gishpnenan wabek iw pi nda je zhyayan – I should buy clothes when I go wherever
Ngi zhadgé wnago – I stayed home yesterday
Jayék géwinwa gi zhyéwat zhi mawjeshnowen – All of them went there to the meeting
Mawjeshnowen gi zhyéwat zhi jayék géwinwa ma shna nin se wi zhe gi zhadgéyan – They all went there to the meeting, but as for me, I stayed home.
Nge mbyégé ode seshmowen – I’m about to write this language
Gi bémadsejek wi wawidawat ode – Those people will read this
Gi bémadsejek wi wawidwat i seshmowen émbyégéyan – Those people will read this language that I write.
odanek nwi zhya – I will go to town
Nwi chikaz tadiwgemek – I will play at the casino
Odanek nwi zhya échikazyan tadiwgemek – To town I will go to play at the casino
Nwi chikaz ibe tadiwgemek ezhyayan zhi odanek – I will play at the casino when I go there to town
Medagwendan dnekmegzewen – I like the game
Ngi wato bégishek – I had fun all day
Medagwendan ode dnekmegzewen égi watoyan bégishek – I like this game that I’ve had fun with all day.
Gwi bazmyagwes ne? – Do you stink?
Gishpen ébon gzindyé’en – If you don’t wash your butt.
Gwi kche bazmyagwes ne gishpen ébon gete gzindyéyen? – Will you really stink if you don’t really wash your butt?
Ni je pi ga majiyen? – When are you leaving?
Gwi wisen ne bwamshe émajiyen? – Will you eat before you leave?
Ni je pi gwi majiyen ne wabek mine gwi wisneyen bwamshe emajiyen – when are you leaving tomorrow? And will you eat before you leave?
Gge wisnemen ebokbetoyak nomek ode she pi! – Let’s eat as we take a break at this time
Gwi bokbetomen ewisneyak – We will break to eat
Ekendaswiyak wnago ebmadsiwyak ngom ekenomageyak se she wabek – We learn yesterday to live for today and to teach for tomorrow.
Gi mnopkwet ne ga je wisneyen – Was it delicious what you ate?
Wégni je ga mijyen – What did you eat?
Wégni je o ga wjandat? – Who cooked?
Mno gigenokwé ne yawe ne o? – Is she a good cook?
Gdo zam shkené ne? – Did you eat too much?
Mgabéwes ne – Are you fat?
Widmoshen bgéji wni éyawyen – Tell me a little about yourself
Wégni – What
Wégwni – What
Ni je – What
Wéni – What
Ni je wi je – how
Ni je ne – how
Ni je wéj – why
Ni pi je – where
Ni je pi – When
Ni jew pi – when
Ni jo pi – When
Iw pi – When (statement)
Iw pi ezhyayan zhi – When I go there
Ni je pi ezhyayen – When are you going
Ni pi je ezhyayen – where are you going
Ni je o ezhyat – Who is going
Ni je wi je ezhyayen – how are you going
Ni je weje ezhyayen zhi – Why are you going there
Ni je wa zhechkéyen ébyayen zhi – What will you do when you get there
Ni je étse mekwiyen étoyen – How many dollars do you have? (How much money do you have?)
Wégwni je ga dbegéyen – How much were you paid?
Ni je wi je wa zhyayan zhi – How do I get there?
Wégwni je o ga zhechkét ode – Who did this?
I yé o gigabé ga zhechkét i – It was that boy who did it
I yé o ne gigabé – Is that the boy?
Éhe ode gigabé yawe – Yes this is the boy
I yé o ne g’os – is that your father?
Ehe o n’os yawe – yes that’s my father
I yé o ne gmeshomes – is that your grandfather
Ehe o nmeshomes yawe – yes that’s my grandfather
I yé o ne gdogmam – is that your tribal chairman
Ehe o ndogmam yawe – yes that’s my tribal chairman
I yé o ne gdenim – is that your husband?
Ehe o ndenim yawe – yes that’s my husband
I yé ne gi gnijansek – are those your kids
Ehe gi nijansek yawik – yes those are my kids
I yé ne gi getsimnek – are those your parents
Ehe gi ngetsimnek yawik – yes those are my parents
I ye ne gdo zhonyam – is that your money?
Wete she gete yawen i! – heck yeah it is!
I ye ne gdo dabyanem – is that your car?
Ehe ndo dabyan yawen – yes that’s my car
Ni je éshewébzet o mbibis – what’s the matter with the baby
Ni je ga zhegnonat – who called
Ni je o – who is that
Ni je pi ga shegnonat o – when did he call
Wegwni je ga je nedwendat – what did he want
Ne je etso pongesyen = how old are you
Kyetnam kiwadmen – I really miss you
Nkiwadmen – I miss you
Nswewabtek shech nyannen ndetse ponges – I am 35 (I have seen 35 winters)
Cho she gdebendawen yawen i – That’s none of your business
Gi widmo ne o ga kedyan – did you tell him what I said?
Mendokaswenen yawen wa je zhechkéyak pkonyak – A ceremony it is what we will do tonight
Debendagwes – I am enrolled, I belong
Shkapkesgen – Stove
Wdmagze – he/she is pitiful
Ngetmages – I am pitiful
Getmages ne? – are you pitiful?
One person’s idea of a prayer which can be learned rather quickly.
Mine ngot ode Madmowen
Mine gode Meshomsenanek
And these Grandfathers of ours
And our Grandmother Earth
Mine Gosnan jak gego ga gish tot
And our Father/Creator He who made everything
Listen to us
Prayers hear them from us
Ewi step miyak/wi jew yak
Go along with us
Ni zhok mo wiyak
Jayek shna ewi ni zhok ma goygo
All of us need help
Mno bmatsewen endoj geygo
A good life we ask for
Endot moygo gosnan mine nig an zi men
We are asking our Father and His helpers
Mishkwezwen, mnobmadsewen, mnowidoktadwen ewi ndoj geygo
Strength of purpose, a good life, good community interaction, we are asking for
Gwi doda men, mnobmadsewen, mishkwezwen ewi noy go nigan ji igwan
A good feeling, a good life, strength of purpose give us up ahead
Mine nizhok moshen
And help me
Gwi matmo towamen ________________________________
We are going to pray for (person prayed for)
Ewi mish kwezet
So h/s will be strong
And will have a good life
Gwi mina egazge bmadsewen
Give a long life/or eternal life
Gwi mina ode sema nan o Gosnan
Going to give tobacco to our Father
Nde penmomen ode sema ewi ni zhok magoygo
Depend on we this tobacco to help us
Nde penmomen ode Neshnabewen ewi ni zhok magoygo
Depend on we this Indian Way to help us
Nde penmomen ode matmowen ewi ni zhok magoygo
Depend on we this prayer to help us
Nde penmomen ode mdodowen ewi ni zhok magoygo
Depend on we this sweat lodge to help us
I gwien jak gego etoyak
Thank you everything we have
Nde chiwenmomen jak gego etoyak
We are happy for all that we have
Igwien ode gmowen
Thank you for this rain
Nedwen damen ode pwagen ewi ni zhok magoygo
Want we this pipe to help us
Nedwen damen ode gemwen ewi ni zhok magoygo
Want we this song to help us
Nedwen damen gode gemwenen ewi ni zhok magoygo
Want we these songs to help us
Nedwen damen ode shkwede ewi ni zhok magoygo
Want we this fire to help us
Nedwen damen ode migwen ewi ni zhok magoygo
Want we this feather to help us
Nedwen damen ode dewegen ewi ni zhok magoygo
Want we this drum to help us
Nedwen damen jak gego egi mingoyak ewi ni zhok magoygo
Want we everything we’ve been given to help us
I ye i enajdoyak ngom ewi mno zheweb ziyak pene
That is what we ask today that we may always do good
Shna epamseyak ode myewen egi mingoyak ebmadziyak shote se otaki
As we walk this road we’ve been given while we live in this world
Iw enajmoyan se odo pi
That is what I have to say at this time
Seven principles of input based language learning.
Seven principles of input based language learning.
1) We learn languages by listening, not by speaking.
A new language has words and phrases that are strange to us. Before we can learn to speak the new language, we have to make these strange words and phrases familiar to us. All learning consists of creating new patterns in our brain. Language learning is no different. We have to listen to the language in order to form these new patterns in our brain. We cannot generate these new patterns from within. They must come from an external source, the native speaker. The greater our interest in the native speaker, or what he or she has to say, the better we can learn a new language.
2) Language learning is a gradual, morphing and unpredictable process.
It takes time to form these new patterns in our brains. The process is not linear, nor is it a step by step process. It is random and unpredictable. As more and more new patterns are layered onto our brains, the language gradually becomes clearer and clearer. Some new words and patterns resist our efforts to learn them, until suddenly they just click in.
3) Meaning is easier to learn than grammar.
Words, phrases and meaning are easier to learn than grammar. The reason is that new words and phrases can be associated with concepts we already have. Often grammatical rules in a new language are different from the patterns that we are using for our first language. Even if these new rules are explained, they are difficult to remember or apply, because our established patterns interfere. That is why it is easier to focus on meaning, and listening, and gradually let the language penetrate our brains.
4) When we read, we are also listening and speaking.
Reading is a powerful way to learn languages. When we read in a foreign language we vocalize. We are, in fact, speaking the sounds of the words, and listening to ourselves. We have the added advantage of seeing a visual form of the words, which helps us remember them.
5) Listening prepares us for reading.
As we listen, we gradually get a better and better sense for the sounds and rhythms of the new language. This helps us when we read, and, as pointed out above, when we listen to ourselves read. As beginner and intermediate learners, we should use the same texts for our listening and reading, and avoid doing the one without the other.
6) Learning to notice, and noticing to learn.
The brain learns a lot on its own, naturally, without us noticing. But for some aspects of the language, and often some of the most basic aspects, we need to help the brain to notice. Error correction, including noticing one’s own errors, grammar explanations, word and phrase review, focusing on certain phrases while listening, highlighting certain words and phrases in texts, tagging or labeling certain words and phrases, are all ways to help us notice aspects of the language that are hard to remember. Noticing is best done while listening and reading. Deliberate noticing, divorced from listening and reading, should be a minor component of language learning. It is useful in making us more attentive to the language, but does not help us learn as effectively as listening and reading.
7) When we speak we should focus on listening and noticing.
We should start speaking when we feel we have something to say, and want to speak, and not before. It is best to avoid artificial classroom activities like role playing or other situations that involve speaking with non-native speakers. The reason is that speaking is an excellent opportunity to listen and notice how the native speaker uses the language, and to notice the gaps in our own use of the language.
Biskonyé – To get dressed
Giskonyé – To get undressed
Askonyé – To change clothing
Nde biskonyé I am getting dressed
Nwi biskonyé I will get dressed
Nda biskonyé I should get dressed
Nge biskonyé I am about to get dressed
Ngi biskonyé I got dressed
Nwi giwé éwi askonyéyan I will go home and change clothes
Ngi giwé égi askonyéyan I went home to change clothes
Gi giwé o égi askonyét H/s went home to change clothes
Ngi giskonyé I undressed
Ngi giskonyémen We (not you) undressed
Ggi giskonyémen We (and you) undressed
Gi giskonyé H/s undressed
Ggi giskonyé You undressed
Ggi giskonyém Y’all undressed
Ggi gisknoyék They undressed
Nwi bisken ode biskewagen I will put on this shirt
Nwi gisken ode biskewagen I will take off this shirt
Bisken i biskewagen Put on that shirt
Gisken i biskewagen Take off that shirt
Askon i biskewagen Change that shirt
Biskewagas Small shirt/blouse
Zhabwegokmedasen sheer stockings
Gishkgnegwéwiyan Vest Gishkgnegwéwiyanen – pl.
Moshwék Shawls – animate while dancing
Nabkowaken Necklace (could also be scarf)
Génwégi Long Coat
Agmek Snowshoes – animate when used
Tkwenagen Shoulder yoke
Mskwa biskewagen Red shirt
Mkedé biskewagen Black shirt
Wizaw biskewagen Yellow shirt
Skebgya biskewagen Green shirt
Wejabkwa biskewagen Blue shirt
Wejepkwaték biskewagen Purple shirt
Wab biskewagen/Wabshkya biskewagen White shirt
Wezamskwewa biskewagen Orange shirt
Jak nadé biskewagen All colored shirt
Mané nadénon biskewagen Many colored shirt
Zhabwa biskewagen See-thru shirt
Zenba biskewagen Ribbon shirt
Win age biskewagen Dirty shirt
Bin age biskewagen Clean shirt
Wshkew biskewagen New shirt
Ni pi je ndo biskemwenen? Where are my clothes?
Taswenek éwi mkanayan ndo biskemwenen I will find my clothes in the closet
Nwi bisken ndo wshkew mjegodé I will put on my new dress
Nde ton ndo nabkowaken I have my necklace (could also be scarf)
Cho nde tosin ndo génwégi I don’t have my long coat
Nde tonen ndo mjedasnen I have my leggings
Cho nde tosinen ndo mkesnen I don’t have my shoes
Nwi bisken ndo wizawbiskewagen I will put on my yellow shirt
Nwi gisken ndo winagze biskewagen I will take off my dirty shirt
Nwi bisken ndo kejibsowen I will put on my belt
Ngi bisken ndo kejibsowen I put on my belt
Ngi gisknen ndo mkedéwmkesnen I took off my black shoes
Nde askon ndo gbediyen I am changing my pants
Nde askonen ndo gokmedasen I am changing my socks
Biskemok ni gbiskewagnewan Put on your coats (plural)
Giskemok ni gbiskewagnewan Take off your coats (plural)
Biskew gi nanisignejik Put on your gloves (plural an.)
Giskew gi nanisignejik Take off your gloves (plural an.)
Bijdasén Put on your socks! (sing.)
Bijdasék Put on your socks! (pl.)
Gichdasén Take off your socks! (sing.)
Gichdasék Take off your socks! (pl.)
Bidkesnén Put on your shoes! (sing.)
Bidkesnék Put on your shoes! (pl.)
Gitkesnén Take off your shoes! (sing.)
Gitkesnék Take off your shoes! (pl.)
Yabje bidkesnén Hurry and put on your shoes! (S.)
Yabje bidkesnék Hurry and put on your shoes! (pl.)
Askonyén Change your clothes! (sing.)
Askonyék Change your clothes! (pl.)
Gizhokwneyén Dress warm! (sing.)
Gizhokwneyék Dress warm! (pl.)
Édebwétagwziyék jayék ézhechkéyék ngom énedwéndeman!
Some words for this uncertain time.
Gégo zam nibweken béshoch! Don’t stand too close!
Gbakwnen I gdon. Cover your mouth.
Gbakwnen I gdon épich jachamyen. Cover your mouth when you sneeze.
Zam manek bmadzejek ibe. There are too many people over there.
Mteno nish wak bmadzejek bidek dawéwgemgok. Only 200 people in the store.
Doskwen mteno- Elbow only.
Gzibinenjén- Wash your hands!
Gshatgén! Stay home (telling one person)
Gshatgék! You all stay home. ( telling more than one person)
Gégo dagneshiken- Don’t touch me.
Gégo dagnakén o kékyat. Don’t touch that elder.
Nasena ézhechkéyen. Be careful what you are doing.
Nasena gishpen Gde-zhya odanek. Be careful if you are going to town.
Ni pi je ézhyayen? Where are you going?
Cho nde-zhyasi ngoji. I am not going anywhere.
Gde-mishatso- You are dressed up fancy.
Konegé, Wisnedawéwgemgok nde-zhyamen. Yes we are going to the grocery store.
Égme gishek gda-bgedna o séma mine madmoyen. Every day you should put down some tobacco and pray.
Folks, I have posted many an interesting topic on the Potawatomi language on this site, but one must be careful to search the site thoroughly. I often post things related to subjects I have taught to various classes online through Zoom. So scroll through the site until you find whatever is of interest to you and keep in mind the panels on the side contain even more topics related to our language.
I will sometimes post old stories which we call atsokanen in the Potawatomi language and sound files regarding songs and teachings we have done on various subjects pursuant to the Potawatomi culture and language.
Hau, nin se Neaseno.
Ode Gizos Msenegen
We are currently in the month/Moon Wzawbogya kizes
Some areas use different words for their months or moons….
We also use a 13 moon calendar with a 28 day cycle, which is older and more in keeping with the traditions of yesteryear.
Ode Gizos Msenegen
This moon Paper or calendar in English
different calendars for various regions
MKO kIzES Bear Moon January
MKO kIzOS Little Bear Moon February
JEJAuK kIzES Crane Moon March
MZHWÉ kIzES Rabbit Moon April
DÉMEN kIzES Strawberry Moon May
MZHIKÉ kIzES Turtle Moon June
WiSHKet DAMEN kIzES Sweet Corn Moon July
MINKÉ kIzES Blueberry Picking Moon August
wZAWBOGYA kIzES Yellow Leaf Moon September
BNAKWI kIzES Leaves Falling Moon October
PNÉ kIzES Turkey Moon November
pON kIzES Snow Moon December
Days of the weeks:
NEMÉw kISHÉK Prayer day Sunday
Ngot kishÉk one day Monday
Nizh kishÉk two day Tuesday
NswÉ kishÉk three day WeDnESday
NyÉw kishÉk four day Thursday
nyano kishÉk Five day Friday
Odanké kishÉk town day Saturday
- Zhechké To Do
- Giwé To Go Home
- Giwsé To Hunt
- Ktege To plant (h/s plants)
- Bidgé To Enter
- Zagjesé To Go Outside
- Mnekwé To Drink
- Wanké To Dig
- Wénkwéngé To Drive
- Zgabyenge To steer, to drive
- Binjegé To Clean
- Gwdemojgé To Fish
- Déwé’gé To Drum
- Gemo To sing (h/s sings)
- Bmadgé To Swim
- Minké To Gather Berries
- Biskonyé To Get Dressed
- Giskonye To get undressed
- Kewabnoje To watch children (babysitting)
- Gzhadawso Another babysitting
- Migadi To Fight
- Mikchéwi To Work
- Anoki To work for hire
- Maji To Leave/Go
- Bsegwi To Get Up/Rise
- Nim’edi To Dance
- Chikaso To Play
- Bkeso To Bathe/to swim (h/s bathes0
- Kedo To Say
- Neshnabémo To Speak Indian Language
- Zhya/zhye To Go
- Bya/bye To Come/Arrive
- Wdema To Smoke
- Wdeme Another way to say to smoke
- Wisne To Eat
- Jibtebe To Sit
- Nibwe To Stand
- Bose To Ride
- Ye To be in a certain place
- Yawe State of being (h/s is)
- Mzhena To seize, lay hold of
- Mawdo To gather
- Pkebna To pick, to reach up
- Dapna To pick, to reach down
- Dkobjege To close a circle, to end things
- Debnek Reach for s.t.
- Bgedna to put down s.t., to lay s.t. down
- Mdomneke To bead
- Gokpenage To make baskets
- Zisbakdoke To make sugar
- Msenagseke To go to the movies, to make pictures
- Wjanda To cook
- Gigeno To cook
- Bmose To walk
- Bmepto To run
- Tkemse To cross over
- Bebamse To walk around, to walk about
- Zhonyamke To have money
- Odanke To shop, to go to town
- Msenege to charge things, as in credit
- We’e, We’uh To loan, to give credit
- Dbege To pay s.t.
- Dawe To buy and sell
- Gishnena To buy as in commercial buying
- Gishpnedo To buy, to shop
- Kigdo To speak, talk
- Nendek To think a certain way
- Nenmat To think a certain way about s.o.
- Nendem To think
- Nagdewenmat To think of s.o.
- Nagdewendek To think of s.t.
- Gchenenmat To think a lot of s.o.
- Mba/mbe To sleep
- Nweshmo To rest
- Ensestek To understand
- Enseto To reason
- Nbwaka To reason
- Bsegwi To rise
- Doki To awake
- Bkezo To bathe, shower
- Gzinge To wash up
- Binchege To clean
- Binakchege To clean
- Wawida To read
- Wawijge To read
- Wab To see
- Wabma To see s.o.
- Wabdan To see s.t.
- Mina To give
- Mingo To receive
- Shema To feed
- Shemgo To be fed
- Gzinwnage To wash dishes
- Bgedna To allow s.o. to do s.t.
- Bgednon To allow s.t.
- Binakwe’o To comb hair
- Gziyabde’o To brush teeth
- Mneschege To put things in order, housework
- Doma To call s.o.
100.Giwse To hunt
Animate Action Verbs – Independent Indicative
Simply put, this is the one subject, one verb sentence. I go, I walk, I run. This basic pattern is one that you will need to recognize as we go forward.
Independent Indicative Verbs – The Short Form
Nin (I) N + verb
Gin (you) G + verb
Win (he/she) verb
Ninan (we – ) N + verb + men
Ginan (we + ) G + verb + men
Ginwa (you pl.) G + verb + m
Winwa (they) verb + k
The first 19 verbs on the previous list end with an “é” sound. These verbs are considered regular “é” verbs, and are the easiest to work with. Here are some examples:
Ngiwé I go home
Ggiwé You go home
Giwé He/she goes home
Ngiwémen We (-) go home
Ggiwémen We (+) go home
Ggiwém You (pl.) go home
Giwék They go home
Verbs 21 – 26 are “i” verbs, and are formed in this example:
Nmikchéwi I work
Gmikchéwi You work
Mikchéwi He/she works
Nmikchéwimen We (-) work
Gmikchéwimen We (+) work
Gmikchéwim You (pl.) work
Mikchéwik They work
Verbs 27 – 30 are “o” verbs, and are formed as in this example:
Nked I say
Gked You say
Kedo He/she says
Nkedmen We (-) say
Gkedmen We (+) say
Gkedom You say (pl)
Kedwik They say
Verbs 31 – 34 are irregular verbs.
Nzhya I go
Gzhya You go
Zhyé He/she goes
Nzhyamen We (-) go
Gzhyamen We (+) go
Gzhyam You (pl.) go
Zhyék They go
Nbya I come
Gbya You come
Byé He/she comes
Nbyamen We (-) come
Gbyamen We (+) come
Gbyam You (pl) come
Byék They come
Ndodma I smoke
Gdodma You smoke
Wdemé He/she smokes
Ndodmamen We (-) smoke
Gdodmamen We (+) smoke
Gdodmam You (pl.) smoke
Wdemék They smoke
Some further words and examples in conjugation.
Nwisen I eat
Gwisen You eat
Wisne He/she eats
Nwisnemen We (-) eat
Gwisnemen We (+) eat
Gwisnem You (pl.) eat
Wisnik They eat
Njibtep I sit
Gjibtep You sit
Jibtebe He/she sits
Njibtebmen We (-) sit
Gjibtebmen We (+) sit
Gjibtebem You (pl) sit
Jibtebwak They sit
Nnibwe I stand
Gnibwe You stand
Nibwe He/she stands
Nnibwemen We (-) stand
Gnibwemen We (+) stand
Gnibwem You (pl.) stand
Nibwek They stand
Nbos I ride
Gbos You ride
Bose He/she rides
Nbosmen We (-) ride
Gbosmen We (+) ride
Gbosem You (pl.) ride
Boswik They ride
-wak, -wek, and –wik often appear at the end of Win and Winwa verb forms.