A good prayer to learn

Hau bo zho jayék ginwa ode waben   (morning)

Oh I greet all of you this ___________________

                                                        Nebgeshmok  (evening)

                                                        Gishek  (day)

Nwi madmo nomek bwamshe éwébmajishkayak

I am going to pray for a short time before we all begin doing things

Mamogosnan émawjeshnoyak shote ngom

Creator God, we are gathered here today

Émnowéndemyak étso nangotoygo odo pi

To celebrate this time for each and every one of us

Ézhawéndagziyak ngom éndodmoyan odo pi

And so I ask your blessing on us at this time

Émnobmaziyak shote jayék géninan

That we shall all live good lives, all of us

Ézhawéndagéyen ode zhechkewnen éndodmoyan

I ask you to bless these doings

Mine jayek gode bémadsejek

And all these people

Iw énajmoyan

That is all I have to say or Amen……

TTC class on 2/14

Week 5:  – o verbs that don’t drop

Kigdo             to talk

Madmo         to pray

Bmepto         to run **irregular like bmosé

Yajmo            to speak

Najdo             to ask

Najmo           to say

Nbémbeto                                        N + bmepto becomes N + bémbeto

Gbémbeto                                        G + bmepto becomes G + bémbeto

Bmeptowak                                     Bmepto + wak

Nbémbetomen                               N + bmepto + men becomes N + bémbeto + men

Gbémbetomen                               G + bmepto + men becomes G + bémbeto + men

Gbémbetom                                    G + bmepto + m becomes G + bémbeto + m

Bmeptok                                           Bmepto + k

Ngi bmepto                                      N + gi + bmepto

Ggi bmepto                                      G + gi + bmepto

Gi bmepto                                        Gi + bmepto

Ngi bmeptomen                             N + gi + bmepto + men

Ggi bmeptomen                             G + gi + bmepto + men

Ggi bmeptom                                  G + gi + bmepto + m

Gi bmeptok                                      Gi + bmepto + k

Nwi madmo                                     N + wi + madmo

Gwi madmo                                     G + wi + madmo

Wi madmo                                       Wi + madmo

Nwi madmomen                            N + wi + madmo + men

Gwi madmomen                            G + wi + madmo + men

Gwi madmom                                 G + wi + madmo + m

Wi madmok                                     Wi + madmo + k

Cho ngi najdosi                               Cho + n + gi + najdo + si

Cho ggi najdosi                               Cho + g + gi + najdo + si

Cho gi najdosi                                  Cho  + gi + najdo + si

Cho ngi najdosimen                       Cho + n + gi + najdo + si + men

Cho ggi najdosimen                       Cho + g + gi + najdo + si + men

Cho ggi najdosim                            Cho + g + gi + najdo + si + m

Cho gi najdosik                               Cho + gi + najdo + si + k

Nda kigdo ne?        

Gwi kigdo ne?

Gi kigdo ne o?

Nge kigdomen ne?

Gde kigdomen ne?

Abdek ne gkigdom?

Gégpi ne gi kigdok?

Nda kigdosi ne?

Gwi kigdosi ne?

Gi kigdosi ne o?

Nge kigdosimen ne?

Gde kigdosimen ne?

Abdek ne gkigdosim?

Gégpi ne gi kigdosik?

Gégo kigdoken

Gégo madmoken

Gégo bmeptoken

Gégo yajmoken

Gégo najdoken

Gégo najmoken

Plural commands:  Use the Context of the situation to determine if you are talking about multiple persons doing something (winwa), or commanding multiple persons to do something (ginwa)

Kigdon!                     Kigdok!

Madmon!                 Madmok!

Bmepton!                 Bmeptok!

Yajmon!                    Yajmok!

Najdon!                     Najdok!

Najmon!                   Najmok!

Week 5 Expansion:  CONJUNCTS…..

There are many reasons to use conjuncts, in songs, stories, questions, and explanations.  We will spread this out over a couple 2-3 weeks to help you absorb.

The key to learning the conjunct endings is the VOWEL SOUND.  Go back over the “vowel pronunciation chart” and really pay attention to vowel sounds that you hear and speak.

To make a conjunct that refers back to I/me, use a -yan ending

To make a conjunct that refers back to you singular, use a -yen ending.

Those 2 vowel sounds are key:  Ah and …… think of that -yen ending as the sound in the word Onion.  Un-yen. 

Égiwéyan                                          Égiwéyen

Émnekwéyan                                  Émnekwéyen

Ébmoséyan                                      Ébmoséyen

Étkemséyan                                     Étkemséyen

Ézhechkéyan                                   Ézhechkéyen

Éminkéyan                                       Éminkéyen

Égtegankéyan                                 Égtegankéyen

Éwankéyan                                      Éwankéyen

Émajiyan                                           Émajiyen

Émikchéwiyan                                 Émikchéwiyen

Ébmeptoyan                                    Ébmeptoyen

Ékigdoyan                                        Ékigdoyen

Émadmoyan                                    Émadmoyen

Énajdoyan                                        Énajdoyen

The “É” is a factive, and it comes in the front of many conjuncts.  Sometimes it can take a tense, like égi or éwi.    It connects the conjunct to something else, either in the same sentence or in the same conversation. 

You use conjuncts when you are seeking information in a question, so let’s use them in context and practice questions.

Ni je = What                         Ni pi je = Where                  Ni je pi = When

Ni je égi zhechkéyen?       Ni pi je égi zhechkéyen     Ni je pi égi zhechkéyen

Ni je éwi kigdoyen             Ni pi je éwi kigdoyen         Ni je pi éwi kigdoyen

Ni je émnekwéyen             Ni pi je émnekwéyen        Ni je pi émnekwéyen

Of course not every verb makes sense with each question.

When asked a question in conjunct, you may answer in conjunct, or not, it’s up to the speaker’s preference.  Here are some examples of conjunct answers:

Ode se égi zhechkéyan     Shote égi zhechkéyan       Nomye égi zhechkéyan

Ode se éwi kigdoyan         Ézhi éwi kigdoyan              Wabek éwi kigdoyan

Mbish émnekwéyan          Zagech émnekwéyan        Nagech émnekwéyan

You can also use conjuncts to connect 2 or more verbs in a sentence.

Nwi giwé éwi tikéyan

Kwédakik nwi pamsé éminkéyan

As we learn more verbs we will put more phrases together like this.

One more ending….

If you are talking about Ginwa, Plural You, there is a different ending to use.

Égiwéyen                                          Égiwéyék

Émnekwéyen                                  Émnekwéyék

Ébmoséyen                                      Ébmoséyék

Étkemséyen                                     Étkemséyék

Ézhechkéyen                                   Ézhechkéyék

Éminkéyen                                       Éminkéyék

Égtegankéyen                                 Égtegankéyék

Éwankéyen                                      Éwankéyék

Émajiyen                                           Émajiyék

Émikchéwiyen                                 Émikchéwiyék

Ébmeptoyen                                    Ébmeptoyék

Ékigdoyen                                        Ékigdoyék

Émadmoyen                                    Émadmoyék

Énajdoyen                                        Énajdoyék

Again, pay close attention to the vowel sounds on the end!

Ni je énajdoyen?

Ni pi je éwankéyék?

Ni je pi éwi majiyen?

Ni je ézhechkéyék?

Ni pi je ébmeptoyék?

Ni je émnekwéyen?

Week 7:  -o verbs that drop.  Now it gets serious. 

Chikaso – to play

Zhenkaso – to be called

Gédaso – to count

Yayéno – to laugh

Jechamo – to sneeze

Neshnabémo – to speak Indian

Kedo – to say something

Nde chikas                                        N + de + chikaso – o

Gde chikas                                        G + de + chikaso – o

Chikasowak                                     Chikaso + wak

Nde chikasmen                               N + de + chikaso – o + men

Gde chikasmen                               G + de + chikaso – o + men

Gde chikasom                                 G + de + chikaso + m

Chikaswik                                         Chikaso – o + wik

Ngi jecham                                       N + gi + jechamo – o

Ggi jecham                                       G + gi + jechamo – o

Gi jechamo                                       Gi + jechamo

Ngi jechamen                                  N + gi + jechamo – o + men

Ggi jechamen                                  G + gi + jechamo – o + men

Ggi jechamom                                 G + gi + jechamo + m

Gi jechamwik                                  Gi + jechamo – o + wik

Ndezhnekas                                     N + de + zhenkaso – o

Gdezhnekas                                     G + de + zhenkaso – o

Zhenkaso                                          Zhenkaso

Ndezhnekasmen                            N + de + zhenkaso – o + men

Gdezhnekasmen                            G + de + zhenkaso – o + men

Gdezhnekasom                               G + de + zhenkaso + m

Zhenkaswik                                      Zhenkaso – o + wik

Ngi ked                                              N + gi + ked – o

Ggi ked                                              G + gi + ked – o

Kedo                                                  Kedo

Ngi kedmen                                     N + gi + kedo – o + men

Ggi kedmen                                     G + gi + kedo – o + men

Ggi kedom                                        G + gi + kedo + m

Gi kedwik                                         Gi kedo – o + wik

Cho ngi yayénsi                               Cho + n + gi + yayéno – o + si

Cho ggi yayénsi                               Cho + g + gi + yayéno – o + si

Cho gi yayénosi                               Cho + gi + yayéno + si

Cho ngi yayénsimen                      Cho + n + gi + yayéno – o + si + men

Cho ggi yayénsimen                      Cho + g + gi + yayéno – o + si + men

Cho ggi yayénosim                         Cho + g + gi + yayéno + si + m

Cho gi yayénosik                            Cho + gi + yayéno + si + k

Ni je da kedyan?

Ni je ga kedyen?

Ni je ezhnekasyen?

Ni je ezhnekasyék?

Ni pi je ga chikasyan?

Ni pi je ga chikasyen?

Ni pi je ga chikasyék?

Neshnabémo                                               Bodéwadmimo

Gneshnabém ne?                                       Gbodéwadmim ne?

Abdek nneshnabémmen                          Abdek nbodéwadmimen

Gégpi ne gneshnabémom?                     Gégpi ne gbodéwadmimom?

Cho nneshnabémsi                                    Cho nbodéwadmimsi

Nangodgen gwi neshnabémmen           Nangodgen gwi bodéwadmimmen

Gédasot éyawyan. 

Nwi gédas! 

Ngot, Nish, Nswé!


Week 7 Expansion:  Ninan and Ginan conjuncts; Wa and Ga.

The endings for Ninan and Ginan are easy to confuse, even for teachers! 

So if you find them reversed in any old book, just reverse them back.

Ninan:  -yak                         Ginan:  -ygo

Ni je ga kedyan?                 Ni je ga kedyak?                 Ni je ga kedygo?

Ga is a past tense marker used with conjuncts

Wa is future tense marker used with conjuncts

They can point to a past or future event, or they can point to a past or future reason or purpose. 

Ni je wi zhe ga majiyen?                          Ngi maji égi tadiyan

Ni je wizhe ga majiyék?                            Ngi majimen égi tadiyak

Ni je wizhe ga majiygo?                            Ggi majimen égi tadiygo

Ni je wizhe wa majiyen?                          Nwi maji wa je mikchéwiyan

Ni je wizhe wa majiyék                             Nwi majimen wa je mikchéwiyak

Ni je wizhe wa majiygo?                          Gwi majimen wa je mikchéwiygo

The vowel endings on the conjuncts can get very confused very quickly.

In English, the pronoun usually comes first in a verb, so our minds are not trained to listen until the end to find out who is doing the action.   To learn conjuncts, spend time listening to the whole sentence before deciding who is doing it.

Ni je ézhnekasyen?                                   

Ni je ézhnekasyék?

Ni je ézhnekasyak?

Ni je ézhnekasygo?

Ngot:   Ni je ga kedyen?                                      

Nish:   “Widbemshen” égi kedyan

Ngot:    Ni pi je wa jibdebygo?

Nish:    Jig shkwedé wa jibdebygo

Ngot:   Gashknabagwé ne?  Ni je émnekwéyen?

Nish:   Cho ngashknabagwési.  Mbish ngi gish mnekwé.

Ngot:   Ni je wa je yayajmoygo?

Nish:   Nwi najdo wa je gtekankéyen.  Ni pi je égtegankéyen?

Ngot:  Kwédakik égtegankéyan.  Mdamen, kojések, mine kwésmanen.

Nish:  Abdek ne émikchéwiyen zhi égmegishek?

Ngot:  Cho, gawa émikchéwiyan.  Mdatso nijansek mikchéwik zhi égmegishek.

Nish:  Mdatso nijansek! Ho Wa!

Ngot:  Ndebanak jayék nijansek!

Phrase work:

Ni je ga kedyék?

Megwa ne échikasyék?

Ni je wa najdoyen?

Shote ne éwi tkemséyék?

Ni pi je wa gtegankéyak?

Ni pi je wa mnomnekéyak?

Ni pi je ga zisbaktokéyak?

Ni je pi wa majiyen égiwséyen?

Ni je pi wa nim’ediyen?

Ni je da kedyan?

Gawa she émikchéwiygo ngom

Wnago ngi maji égiwéyan

Wabek nwi majimen égiwéyak

“Gdebanen” égi kedyan

Ge majimen étadiygo

Ge majimen épamséygo

Gégo tadiken émikchéwiyen

Nda giwé é’askonyéyan

Ngi jecham ékigdoyan

Gégo bmeptoken ékwédasiyen

Some intros one might experience


Arguments over grammar and style are often as fierce as those over Windows versus Mac, and as fruitless as Coke versus Pepsi and boxers versus briefs. -Jack Lynch, English professor, author (b. 1967)

Bkan dwe ode kedwenen wa je kedot weye eyajmot

Ni je na ode wewene gishek

Hau mno wi she anwe ebmadziyan, migwej enajdoyen

Gin je, mno she bmades ne ngom

Hau kyet nam she mno gishget ngom

Wewene enozhegenenan se eyawyak

Manek ne gode neshnabek ga wje byewat shote

Anake gode bemadsejek ebyembetowat ebsendagewat

Wegwendek ekedwat shote ngom

Gkendan ne wa je kedwat gode gdogmamnajek

Énkwéshmo’ayen Weye

        Upon Meeting Someone/Somebody

Bo zho                                                       hello/a greeting

Some queries after the initial greeting:

Ni je na                                            how are you?

Neshnabé ne gdaw                          are you Indian?

Bodéwadmi ne gdaw                      are you Potawatomi?

Ni je ésh ne kas yen                       what is your name?

Ni pi je wéj bya yen                       where are you from?

Ni je énwéyen                                 what’s your tribe?

A possible answer you might get:

_______________ shkwon genek ndoj bya

          I come from the ________________________ reservation.

Some more queries:

Ni je épichiyak ne i gshkwongenek

          How far is it to your reservation?

Manék gi neshnabék ne ibe gdoj bya yen

          Are there a lot of Indians where you’re from?

Gde wichewé ne                    are you married?

Gdo nijanes ne                      do you have children?

Éhé ndo nijanes                     yes, I have children.

Jo wi nde nijansesi                no, I don’t have children.

Gdo nosemesek ne                do you have grandchildren?

Ehe ndo nosemesek              yes, I have grandchildren.

Jo wi nde nosemesesi            no, I don’t have gchildren.

Jo mshe nde nosemesi          no, not yet!

Ni je étsowat gi gnijansek

          How many are there, your kids?

Some more answers:

Nizh yawik.  Ngot kwézés mine ngot gigabés.

          There are two.  One little girl and one little boy.

Nswéo yawik, ngot gigyagos mine nizh gigabések

          There are three.  One little girl and two little boys.

Some possible responses to initial queries:

Hau, bozho

___________________________ ndezh ne kas

Bodéwadmi ndaw

Ode shkongenek ndoj bya

          I come from this reservation.

Jigwé ndotém                                  I am thunder clan.

Ni je o gdotém                                What is your clan?

Neshnabémo ne                             

Hau, gda neshnabémen

Some more possible queries:

Gi bya ne éméndokasyen

          Did you come for ceremonies?

Gwi nimedi ne wa je zéksowat

          Are you going to dance when they have their doings?

Gwi nimedi ne wa je jingtemwat

          Are you going to dance when they pow-wow?

Gnegmo ne?

          Do you sing?

Gwi ggemo ne

          Are you going to sing?

Manék gode neshnabék énimediwat shote

          There are many these Indians that dance here.

Ode ngot mawjeshnowen mésham ngoji pi shote

          This is one of the biggest gatherings hereabouts.

Énchiwénmoyak i

          We’re proud of that!

Ode se nde kwéyom                      

This is my wife

Gode se nde penojéyek                          

These are my children

Ibe édayan                                      

I live over there

Ézhi ne                                                

Over there?

Ndo dabyan ndeto ne                    

Do you have a car?

Éhé dabyan ndeto

          Yes, I have a car.

Cho dabyan ndetosi

          No, I don’t have a car.

Mbusen nde shona gishpen éshyayan ngoji pi

          I go by bus if I go someplace.

Cho she dabyan ndetosi éwzgabyénma

          I really don’t have a car to drive.

Medagwéndan éyajmoyak nomek ngom

          I’m glad we could talk today for a while.

Ébgosénmeyan émedagwéndemyen gawje kigdoyak

          I hope you liked our talk.

Iw se she na ngom

          That’s all for today!

Ode se ndenim

          This is my husband.

Ni pi je ga ye yen wnago

          Where were you yesterday?

 Ni pi je enokiyen

          Where do you work?

Ni je etse edbegazyen ibe enokiyen

          How much are you paid there where you work?

Ngi nkweshmo’a o wenze kwe ngodek egi weshkgeyan

          I met a pretty lady once when I was a young man.

I ye o ga wje widgeyan

          That is whom I married.

Nyanok gi penojek etoyak, wenzik

          We have five children, they are good.

Wenet i widge’ewen

          Marriage is good

Memejek enkweshmoyen o wewene wijewagan

          Especially when you meet the right partner.

Émnokmek                                   It is spring!

Gaga she nibnek                             Soon it will be summer.

Gwi gtegé ne                                   Will you plant?

Gde gtegé ne                                   Do you plant?

Gde gteganké ne                             Do you garden?

Nwi gtegadan ni zawjisésen

          I’m gong to plant those carrots

Nwi gteganak gi shegagoshek

          I’m going to plant those onions

Gwi gteganan anet ne shegagoshek

          Are you going to plant some onions?

Ni je éshgowat gi shegagoshek

          How are they growing those onions?

Téya méshan i ggtegan

          Wow, your garden is big!

Gachnwadon i ngteganés

          My garden is small

Ma she na mjésh méndamnek éshegoyan

          But I grow a lot of corn!

Gin ne?                Do you?

Ahau, bama shkejimeyek gwi kigdomen mine……

Ok, later on we shall speak some again…….

Bodéwadmi Deshemwen

Potawatomi, the way we speak it

Bo zho                                             hello, a greeting




Nin (I)  Gin  (you)  Win  (he/she)

Bo zho (n)nikan                    hello my friend

Bo zho (n)nikanek                hello my friends

Ni je na                                   how are you

Ni je na gin                            how are you

Ni je na (n)nikan                   how are you my friend

Ni je na (n)nikanek               how are you my friends

Mno bmades                          I’m well

I she anwe                              I’m fine

Jo she mno ye’si                    I’m not well

Mno wi she anwe                  Oh, I’m doing well

                                                Oh, I’m fine

I je ye’ i e’mno bmadziyan  So it is that I am doing well

Get makes ma she na anwe e’bmadziyan

          Doing poorly, but still alive

Gin je                                      and you?

Gin je na gmno bmades ne

And you, are you well?

Some simple commands:

Nibwen                                   stand  (sing.)

Nibwek                                   stand  (pl.)

Bsetage’n                               listen

Bsetweshen                            listen to me

Bsetweshek                            listen to us

Bsetwe’ a o                            listen to him/her

Bset we’ a shek                     all of you listen

Kye’knotoshen                      repeat after me

Kye’knotoshek                      repeat after us

Nemetsena                              I don’t know

Win nato                                ask him/her

Dokem                                    quiet

Dokmeben                             sit quietly  (sing.)

Dokmebek                             sit quietly  (pl.)

Dadokmeben                         behave yourself

Dadokmebek                         behave yourselves

Jibdeben                                 sit down  (sing.)

Jibdebek                                 sit down  (pl.)

Kwiwe’bye’wimen                We are going to begin

Kwi kwe’n washmomen       We are going to take a break

Nomek kwi we’n wash momen

          A little while, we are going to rest

Nomek                                    a little while

Gaga                                       soon

Bwamshe                                before

I ye’ i                                      that’s it, that’s right

Wi ye’ i                                  that’s it, that’s right

Some questions:

Ni je e’she ne kasyen

What is your name/what are you called?

Ni pi je we’ch byayen

Where are you from?

Ni je o gdote’m

What is your clan?

Ni je e’neshnabe’ ne kasyen

What is your Indian name?

Ni pi je e’dayen

Where do you live?

Ni pi je e’ndebe’ndagziyen

Where are you enrolled?

Literally: where do you belong?

Ni je pi ne gi byayen

When did you arrive/come?

Neshnabe’ ne gdaw

Are you Indian?

Ni je e’niyen

What tribe/what kind?

Bode’wadmi ne gdaw

Are you Potawatomi?

Ni je e’neshnabe’ ne kasot o

What is that person’s Indian name?

Ni je e’neshnabe’ ne kasye’k

What are your Indian names?

Ni je e’neshnabe’ ne kaswat

What are their Indian names?

Ni je e’shne ka sot

What is her/his name?

Ni je e’shne kaswat

What are their names?

Some responses:

Nin  (I)  Gin  (you)  Win  (he/she)

______________ndesh ne kas

I am called/my name is

______________gdesh ne kas

you are called/your name is

______________shen ka na ye

he/she is called/his/her name is

______________shen kaso           same

______________shne kaso           same

______________nde shen kan gomen

We are called/our names are   (excl.)

______________nde shen kan gomen

we are called/our names are  (incl.)

______________gde shen kan gom

Ya all are called/ya all’s names are

______________shen ka na wik

They are called/their names are

Nin  (I)   Gin   (you)   Win  (he/she)

Ni je na gin wa                       how are ya all?

Ni je na ge win wa                how are they?

Ni je na o                               how is he/she?

Ni je na gde wenmagnek      how are your relatives?

Ni je na ggetsimnanek          how are your parents?

Ni je na ga zhikayen             how did you make out?

Ni je e’zhechkeyen               what are you doing?

Ni je e’zhechkeye’k              what are ya all doing?

Response: I am good/well/fine.

Nin                      nde mno bmades          I am g/w

Gin                      gde mno bmades          you are g/w

Win                     mno bmadse                 s/h is g/w

Ninan                  mno bmatsemen we are g/w

Ginan                  gmno bmatsemen         we are g/w

Ginwa                  gmno bmadsem  ya all are g/w

Winwa                 mno bmatsik                they are g/w




Mko/mkwa                            bear

Jigwe’k                                   thunder

Gigo                                       fish

Nanimwe’                               coyote

Moewe’                                  wolf

Mshike’                                  turtle

Bkoj bsheke                           buffalo

Kno                                         eagle




Mshiwe’                                 elk

Wawashkeshi                         deer


Wasi                                        bullhead/catfish

Nabe                                        man

mskwabiskeno                       red tailed hawk

Name’                                     sturgeon

Negdosha                               horse


What is your clan?

Gin                                we ni je (o) gdote’m

                                      What is your clan

Win                               we ni je (o) wdote’men

                                      What is h/h clan

Ninan                            we ni je (o) ndote’mnan  (excl.)

                                      What is our clan

Ginan                            we ni je (o) gdote’mnan  (incl.)

                                      What is our clan

Ginwa                           we ni je (o) gdote’mwa  (ya all)

                                      What is ya alls’ clan

Winwa                          we ni je (o) wdotemwan

                                      What is their clan

One little word can do much


Gégo has more than one meaning.  The most common use is as a “Prohibitive.”


Gégo i zhechkéken            Don’t do that

Gégo bmeptoken               Don’t run

Gégo majiken                      Don’t leave

Gégo moken                        Don’t cry

Gégo   moken

Gégo   zhechkén i

Gégo   wisneken ode

Gégo   mnekwéken i mshkwedéwabo

Gégo   gzhipken

Gégo   bmeptoken shote

Gégo   pegnoken i bkwakwet

Gégo   zégzeken

Gégo   majiken

Gégo   bsegwiken

Gégo   jibdeken shote/ibe

Gégo   shkadzeken

Gégo   toyen i shote

Gégo   wjandaken i

Gégo   kedken i

Gégo   wabdemken é i

Gégo   wépodoken o

Gégo   bodwéken

Gégo   kigdoken

Gégo  odankéken  ngom

Gégo  wzgabyénkéken  émnekwéyen

Gégo  pamséken  shote

Gégo  gwaske’oken  ngoji  pi  shote

Gégo  wébiwéken

Gégo  gdemojkéken  ibe

Gégo  giwséken  shote

Gégo  mamgedonen  ni  boktoyen

Gégo  myanéndemken

Gégo  jagdéken  i  wisnewen

Gego  mikjewiken  nwesh

Gego  mnekweken  i

Gego  wisneken  shote

Gego  chikasken  begishek

Gego  kigdoken  bepkonyak

Gego  mbwaj’eweken  nwesh

Gego  gishkwebyeken  mine

Gego  nimediken  ibe

Gego  wawijgeken   i  msenegen

Gego  widmoken  o

Gégo does not always mean “Don’t.”

Note – Gégo usually refers to something inanimate.  If you want to say I didn’t see anyone, it would be Cho weye ngi wabmasi.

Cho gégo ngi zhechkési                I didn’t do anything

Cho gégo ngi wzhetosimen         We didn’t make anything

Cho gégo ngi nodasimen              We didn’t hear anything

Cho gégo ngi wabdesin                I didn’t see anything

Cho she gégo ngi wabdasin         I really didn’t see anything.

Cho gégo ngi wisnesin                  I didn’t eat anything

Cho she gégo ngi gishpnedosin I really didn’t buy anything

Cho gégo nge kendasin                I don’t know anything

Cho she gégo nge kendasin         I really don’t know anything

Jak gégo égi zhetot                        He/she made everything

Jak gégo ngi wisen                         I ate everything

Jak gégo ngi gishpnedosin           I bought everything

Jak gégo ngi zhechkén                  I did everything

Jak gégo ngi wabdan                     I saw everything

Gégo shna égi zhechkét               He/she did something

Gwi zhechké’en gégo ne pkonyak Are you doing something tonight?

Gégo ne gwi wisen?                      Are you going to eat something?

Épandewebneyan gégo                I’m looking for something

Émikwéndemyan gégo                 I’m remembering something

Gégo ne ga kedyen?                      Did you say something?

Gégo ne émikwéndemyen?        Do you remember anything?

Gégo ne ga gishpnedoyen?         Did you buy anything?

Gégo ne ggi zhechkéyen ode waben    Did you do anything this morning?

Ggi mkan ne gégo ibe égi zhyayen       

Did you find anything there where you went?

Gégo ne gwi zhya ne wabek        Are you going somewhere tomorrow?

Gishpnedoshen gégo                    Buy me something

Gégo éwi gishpnedoyan gishpen nwi odanke

                        I will buy something if I go to town

Gego ne ggi dapnan ne ibe biskemgemek

            Did you pick anything up at the clothing store?

Ggi zam wisen ne gégo?

Gégo ne ggi gish wisen?

Nedwéndan gégo ne émnekwéyen?

Jak gégo éwabdet

Jak weye éwabmat

Gégo ne égi wawidayen?

Cho gégo ngi wawidasin

Cho gégo ngi majidosin

Cho gégo ngi wisnesin

Cho gégo ngi dapnasin

Cho gégo ng’kendasin

Cho gégo étoyan

A study in how to……

How to begin forming sentences in Potawatomi.

Maji- verb to leave

N maji- I leave                                             

G maji- you leave

Maji wak- he/she leaves

N maji men- We –u leave

G maji men- we all leave

G maji m- you all leave

Maji k- they leave

Gi past tense, wi is the future tense

N gi-maji- I left

G gi-maji- you left

Gi maji wak- he/she left

N gi-maji men- We –u left

G gi-maji men- We all left

G gi-maji m- you all left

Gi maji k- they left

N wi-maji- I will leave

G wi-maji- You will leave

Wi maji wak- she/he will leave

N wi-maji men- We-u are going to leave

G wi-maji men- We all are going to leave

G wi-maji m- You all are going to leave

Wi maji k- They will leave

If you learn these patterns you can just put other AI verbs in the pattern.

Some time words

Wabek– tomorrow

Ngom– today

Wnago– yesterday

Pkonyak– evening

Dbeket– night

Nawkwek– at noon

Gishnawkwe– afternoon

Building off this

Wabek nwi-maji– I am going to leave tomorrow.

Nawkwek gi maji o Sara. Sara left at noon.

Pkonyak ne gwi-majim? Are you all leaving this evening? ( ne is usally the second word and indicates a simple yes/no question)

Gishnawkwek nwi-majimen– We are going to leave in the afternoon. (This we excludes the person being told. We-u are leaving)

Ngom nmaji– I am leaving today/now.

Nawkwek gi majik– They left at noon.

Majin– Leave (telling one person)

Majik– Leave (telling more than one person)

The world consists of animate and inanimate things in Potawatomi.

Nouns are either animate- alive, spiritual or moving. Example: Pipe, woman, man, boy, sun, tree ( many things in nature are animate) Also a car is animate when its moving but inanimate while parked.

Inanimate- non living  Example: table, chair, bed

Most man made objects are inanimate. Sometimes a speaker with make something animate for a story such as a magical mirror that talks.

There are four main types of verbs in Potawatomi VAI these involve someone doing something that doesn’t effect anyone else. Example: I am reading, you are sitting, we are leaving. These do not directly affect anyone else.

Animacy effects how you pluralize objects, what verbs you use, how to describe this,that,those. Etc.

VII verbs are often adjectives in English To be round, to be red, they are expensive, it is raining, it is hot (states of being)

VTI verbs involve someone and something Example: I see it, I touch it, I read it, They left it.

VTA verbs involve someone and another person or animate thing. Example: I saw him, he told you, we saw them, I picked up the pipe (animate object)

Students study these

Inalienable Possession

Understanding possession requires knowledge of the personal pronouns and their corresponding prefixes and suffixes.  In Bodewadmimwen, body parts and relatives fall into a special class of nouns that are considered “inalienably” possessed.  This means that to be grammatically correct, you cannot just have a Foot or a Mother; you have to specify whose foot or whose mother it is.  Body parts and relatives are considered “Dependent” nouns.

Nkat               My leg                                   Ngyé              My mother

Gkat               Your leg                                 Ggyé              Your mother

Wkaten         His/her leg                            Wgyéyen      His/her mother

Nkatmenan  Our leg (not yours)            Ngyénan       Our mother (not yours)

Gkatmenan Our leg (+you)                     Ggyénan       Our mother (+you)

Gkatmewa   Your leg (pl.)                        Ggyéwa         Your mother (pl.)

Wkatmewa  Their leg                                Wgyéwan     Their mother

The pattern looks slightly different when the noun is plural.  Remember, body parts are inanimate, while relatives are animate:

Ntogen                      My ears                     Nmeshomsek          My grandfathers

Gtogen                      Your ears                  Gmeshomsek          Your grandfathers

Wtognen                  His/her ears             Wmeshomsen         H/h grandfathers

Ntogmenanen        Our ears (-you)       Nmeshomsenanek Our grandfathers-

Gtogmenanen        Our ears (+you)      Gmeshomsenanek Our grandfathers+

Gtogmewan            Your ears (pl.)         Gmeshomsewak    Your grandfathers

Wtogmewan           Their ears                 Wmeshomsewan   Their grandfathers

Here are some commonly used terms for relatives and friends.  Note that some terms are only used by men, while some terms are only used by women.

My maternal aunt  Noshé                        My nephew             Negwenes

My paternal aunt   Nshegwes                 My niece                   Nzhemes

My cousin                 Nitawes                     My parents              Ngetsimek

My daughter           Ndanes                      My younger sibling   Nshimé

My son                      Ngwes                       My brother (men)  Nnikan[1]

My grandmother   N’okmes                   My daughter in law  Ne’agnekwé

My child                    Nijanes                      My sister (women) Nidgeko

My grandchild         Nosés                         My sister (men)      Ndekwem

My uncle                   Nzheshé                    My son in law          Ne’angesh

My elder brother of male            Nsezé

My elder brother of female         Ndewéma

My brother in law of female       Nita

My brother in law of male           Niji

My elder sister of male                 Nmesé

My sister in law of male               Ninem

Family ties were of utmost importance to the old time Bodéwadmik, and relationships were very specific.  Many relationships had special places of honor in society.  For example, it was customary for a son-in-law to avoid speaking directly to his mother-in-law out of absolute respect for her. 

Here are some commonly used body parts.

My ear                       Ntog                           My ears                     Ntogen

My nose                    Njash

My eye                      Nshkishek                 My eyes                    Nshkishgwen

My throat                 Ngotaken                 

My mouth                Ndon

My chin                     Ndamken

My arm                     Nnek                          My arms                   Nnekén

My hand                   Nej/Nenji                  My hands                 Nenjin

My leg                       Nkat                           My legs                      Nkatén

My foot                     Nzet                           My feet                     Nzetén

My finger                  Nenjis                        My fingers                Nenjisen

My toe                       Nzetés                       My toes                     Nzetésen

My shoulder            Ndenmagen             My shoulders          Ndenmagnen

My head                   Nshtegwan              

Top of my head       Ndep

My hair                     Nwinsesén

My forehead           Ngeték

My back                    Npegwen

My tooth                  Nibet                          My teeth                   Nibden         

Alienable Possession

Objects that can be removed from a possessor are considered “Alienable.”  This means that the noun in question can be given away.  Nouns that fall into this category are considered “Independent” nouns.  Possession of this sort is shown as follows:

Inanimate Objects:

Nkomanem             My knife                               Nkomanen               My knives

Gkomanem              Your knife                             Gkomanen               Your knives

Wkomanem            His/her knife                        Wkomanen              His/her knives

Nkomanmenan      Our knife (not yours)        Nkomanmenanen  Our knives

Gkomanmenan      Our knife (yours too)        Gkomanmenanen  Our knives

Gkomanmewa        Your knife (pl.)                    Gkomanmewan      Your knives

Wkomanmewa       Their knife                            Wkomanmewan    Their knives

Animate Objects:

Ngazhoyem             My cat                                   Ngazhomek             My cats

Ggazhoyem             Your cat                                 Ggazhomek             Your cats

Wgazhomen            His/her cat                           Wgazhomen            His/her cats

Ngazhomenan        Our cat (not yours)            Ngazhomenanek    Our cats

Ggazhomenan        Our cat (yours too)            Ggazhomenanek    Our cats

Ggazhomewa          Your cat (pl.)                        Ggazhomewak        Your cats

Wgazhomewan      Their cat                                Wgazhomewan      Their cats

There are other ways to show possession of this type:

            Ndo komanem                                My knife

            Nin ma ode koman                        This is my knife (emphatic)

            Nin ndebendan ode koman        I own this knife

            Nin ma o nemosh                           That is my dog (emphatic)

            Nin ndebenma o nemosh            I own that dog

Gdo koman                                      Your knife

            Gin ma ode koman                        This is your knife (emphatic)

            Gin gdebendan ode koman         You own this knife

            Ndo komanmenan                         Our knife

            Ndo komanmenanen                    Our knives

            Ninan ndebendamen ode koman          We own this knife

            Gdo komanmenan                         Our knife

            Gdo komanmenanen                    Our knives

            Ginan ndebendamen node komanen   We own these knives       

Some special Possessive words:

Nda’i                          My pet dog

            Ndokyan                   My pet cat (can be used for other small animals)

            Ndéygwam              My pet horse

                                                Proximate                             Obviative


Nemosh        O Nemosh                            Ni Nemoshen

Bnéshi                        O Bnéshi                               Ni Bnéshiyen


Nemosh                    Gi Nemoshek                       Ni Nemoshen

Bnéshi                        Gi Bnéshiyek                        Ni Bnéshiyen

This does NOT mean the dog and the bird have become inanimate.  What they have become is 4th Person.

Nin/Ninan/Ginan = 1st Person

Gin/Ginwa = 2nd Person

Win/Winwa = 3rd Person

Nemosh wabman ni bnéshiyen

            The dog sees the bird (s)

                        Nemosh – 3rd Person        

                                    ni bnéshiyen – 4th person

He, pegdoshen i n(do)pkwakwetem

Ni pi je étémget i n(do)shkemotem?

Dopwenek éték i g(do)shkemotem

I yé i n(do)waboyanmenan!

I yé ni n(do)waboyanmenanen!

Hau, mnéschegén ni gchikaswenen!

Ni pi je étoyék ni gdabyanmewan?

Gégo toyék ni gdabyanmewan ibe!

Gishpen étoyék ni gdabyanmewan ibe égwan o mshenkiwnene wa je pamsét éwabdet ni gdabyanmewan ibe éwi mbyégét ni msenegasnen!

Wabek nwi shema o n(de)nemoyem.

Wabek nwi shemamen o n(de)nemomenan.

Wabek nwi shema o n’okmes wnemomen.

Wabek nwi shemak gi n(de)nemomek.

Wabek nwi shemamen gi n(de)nemomenanek.

Wabek nwi shema o ngétsimnek wnemomewan.

Ni pi je ék’kezot o gmeshomsewa wgazhomen?

Nemetsena éyéyet ni wgazhomen.  Cho nde wabmasi o!

[1] Nikan is also used for “My friend.”


The Senses

  1. Bichbdan – To taste something

The words for “tasting something” and “the taste of something” are different.  Mno pkot describes something with a good taste. 

Ngi bichbdan i mbop – I tasted the soup

Nwi bichbdanen ni zawjisésnen – I will taste the carrots

  • Jagdéwpegwet – It tastes burnt

Jagdéwpegwet ode wiyas – This meat tastes burnt

Jagdéwpegwet node zawjisésnen – These carrots taste burnt

  • Bichmandan – To smell something

The words for “smelling something” and “the smell of something” are also different.  Mno myagwet describes something with a good smell.

Nbichmandan i mbop – I smell soup

Mno myagwet i mbop ngi bichmandan – The soup I smelled smells good

  • Jagdéwmagwet – Something smells burning

Jagdéwmagwet i wiyas – The meat smells like its burning

Gégo jagdéwmagwet – Something smells like its burning

  • Bsendagé – To Listen

Nde bsendagé – I’m listening

Nde bsendagémen – We are listening

Nde bsedwe’a o – I’m listening to him/her

  • Nodagé – To hear

Gi nodagé ne? – Did you hear (implies “the news”)?

Ni je ga nodyen ézhi? – What did you hear over there?

Ni je ga nodyék ézhi? – What did you all hear over there?

Ni je ga nodwat ézhi? – What did they hear over there?

  • Gyépsha – To be Deaf

Ggyépsha ne? – Are you deaf?

Gyépshéwak – They are deaf

Nge gyépshe – I am deaf

  • Wabmetso – To see one’s self

Nde wabmetso – I see myself

Wawabmonek nwi wabmetso – I will look at myself in the mirror

Ggi wabmetso ne ngom? – Have you looked at yourself today?

  • Dpabé – To peek through

Nde pap – I’m peeking through

Dpabé o gigabé – That boy is peeking through

  1. Nokisiyamget – It is soft

Nokisiyamget i mbagen – The bed is soft

Nokisiyamget ode naken – The rug is soft

Sounds we make

  1. Mdaktagwé – To Make Cute Little Sounds

Mdaktagwé o gigyagos – That little girl makes cute little sounds

Mdaktagwen i chikaswen – That toy makes cute little sounds (note: toy is inanimate, the verb changes to reflect that.)

Mdaktagwé can also reference someone or something that sounds funny or tells jokes.

  1. Bbebgwé – To Play the Flute

Nbebgwé – I play the flute

Égwan o nnikanan, Wabnum éshnekazot, ébebgwét o – Our friend, Wabnum, he plays the flute.

  1. Nejiwdéwé’gen – Hand Drum

Byédweshen i nejiwdéwé’gen éwi déwé’géyan éngemoyan – Bring me a hand drum so I can drum and sing

  1. Mdawéwjegé – To Play Music

Bégishek nwi mdawéwjegé ibe – I will play music all day over there

Ge mdawéwjegémen – Let’s play music

  1. Wiskwé – To Scream

Also to scream, shriek, or make a high pitched noise

Ngi wiskwé – I screamed

Gi wiskwé o penojé – The baby let out a shrill noise

Gi wiskwé o gno – The eagle shrieked

  1. Bapashkwé – To Whoop

Mbapashkwé – I am whooping

Mtegwakik égi pambetot o ébapashkwét nekmek ngoji  – Through the forest he went running about, whooping everywhere

  1. Badwéwégze – Someone is very noisy

Badwéwégze o gigabé échikasot – That boy is being very noisy as he plays

Gbadwéwéges éje zhechkéyen i – You are being very noisy in what you are doing

  1. Gasknezo – Whisper

Égasknezot o gigyago – That girl is whispering

Égasknezowat gi penojék – Those children are whispering

  1. Kyéknotoshen – Repeat after me

Kyéknotoshen wa je kigdoyan – Repeat after me what I say

Kyéknotoshek wa je kigdoygo – Repeat after us what we say

In Sickness and In Health

  • Jechamo – To sneeze

Ngi jecham – I sneezed

Ggi jecham ne? – Did you sneeze?

  • Gikibgoshé – To be sleepy

Ngikibgosh – I’m sleepy

Gikibgosh ne? – Are you sleepy?

Gikibgoshé o penojé – The child is sleepy

  • Nemwi – To Breathe

Nde ném – I’m breathing

Mégwa she nde ném – I’m still breathing

  • Shomigwé – To Smile

Éshomigwét o gigabé – That boy is smiling

Éshomigwét o gigyago – That girl is smiling

Éshomigwét o penojé – That baby is smiling

  • Yanmazo – To Yawn

Yanmazo o kwé – That woman is yawning

Nde shibjegé éyanmazoyan – I am stretching as I’m yawning

  • Zipskedon – To slobber

Zipskedon o penojé éwisnet – The baby is slobbering as he eats

Ngi zipskedon dbekok – I was slobbering last night

  • Waskwigwézo – To squint

Waskwigwézo o gigyago – That girl is squinting her eyes

Waskwigwézo o gigabé – That boy is squinting his eyes

  • Shashkegwé – To vomit

Ngi shashkegwé wnago – I vomited yesterday

Bégishek ngi shashkegwé – I vomited all day

  • Zhashagwejegé – To Chew

Nde zhashagwejegé – I am chewing

Nde zhashagwejegémen – We are chewing (not you)

Zhashagjegén gmijem – Chew your food

  • Dapnezo – To Cramp

Ndo dapnezo – I am cramping

Ndo dapbwamnezo – I have a cramping thigh

Ndo dapneknezo – I have a cramping arm

  • Mno bmadzewen – Good Health

Éndotmoyan ode mno bmadzewen – I am praying for this good health

Nde kewabmetso éwi mno bmadziyan – I am watching myself so I will be healthy

  • Mnazeté – He/she has stinky feet

Mnazeté o shkenwé – The young man has stinky feet

  • Gishgamo – H/s is fat/large

Gishgamo o nene éjibdebet ibe – That man sitting over there is fat

Gwi gishgama – You will become fat/huge

  • Nshiwabéwze – H/s is really fat/huge

Neshiwabéwes – I am really fat/huge

Wéte she nshiwabéwze o nene – Truly that man  is enormous (fat)

  • Gachabéwze – H/s is skinny

Ngachabéwes – I am skinny

Gachabéwze o shkenwé – That young man is skinny

  • Bibageze – He/she is thin

Bibageze o gigabé – That boy is thin

Bibageze o kwé – That woman is thin

  • Kpegze – H/s is thick

Kpegze o nene bénawimset – That man is thick around the middle

  • Apwé – To Dream

Ngi apwé dbekok – I dreamed last night

Ggi apwé ne? – Did you dream?

Wégni je gaw je apwéyen?  – What did you dream?

  • Kikidze – He/she aches (is sore)

Bégishek gi kikidze o – He/She ached all day

Nkikides – I ache (I am sore)

Gkikides ne? – Are you sore?

  • Nenjiswajgen – Fingerprint

Ngi wabdan i nenjiswajgen – I saw a fingerprint

Nde wabdanen manék nenjiswajgenen – I see many fingerprints

  • Zetwajgen – Footprint

Ngi wabdan i zetwajgen zagech – I saw a footprint outside

Ngi wabdanen ni zetwajgenen zagech – I saw those footprints outside

  • Pekshen – To Fall

Nasana, gwi pekshen! – Look out, you’re going to fall!

Gi pekshen o gigabé – The boy fell

  • Giwshkwéwadzo – To have dizzy spells

Giwshkwéwadzo o kwé – That woman is having dizzy spells

Ngiwshkwéshka – I am having dizzy spells

  • Wagkadé – He/she is bowlegged

Wagkadé o gigabé – That boy is bowlegged

Wagkadé o nene épamsét – That man is bowlegged as he walks

  • Wagjané – H/s has a crooked nose

Wagjané o nene – That man has a crooked nose

Wagjané o kwé – That woman has a crooked nose

  • Yagwadze – He/she is crazy

Nyagwades – I am crazy

Gyagwades ne? – Are you crazy?

Épich yagwadtagze o nene – That man sounds crazy

Relationships and Interactions

  • Wijéwe – Accompany, Come With

Gwi wijéw ne?- Do you want to come along?

Wijéwshen – Come with me

Égi wijéwshet o ndanes – My daughter accompanied me

  • Wiche’wé – To be married to someone

This verb is used when you are specific about your husband or wife

Ngi wiche’wéa o ndenim – I married my husband

Ngi wiche’wéa o ndekwéyom – I married my wife

  • Widgé – To be married

This verb is used to describe the state of being married

Nde widgé – I am married

Nde widgémen – We are married (not you)

  • Widokagé – To Participate

Although not transitive, it does imply some sort of gathering or group activity

Nwi widokagé – I will participate

Nwi o widokagé – I will go participate

Ggi widokagé ne? – Did you participate?

  • Bidagnegé – to “sign in”

Literally:  To go in and make a mark

Nwi bidagnegé – I will sign in

Abdek gwi bidagnegé – You have to sign in

Ngi bidagnegé wnago – I signed in yesterday

  • Dbe’gazo – To be paid

Gi dbe’gazo wnago – He was paid yesterday

Nwi dbe’gazo wabek – I will be paid tomorrow

  • Gdenan – I am talking to you

Ho, gin ma gdenan! – Hey, I’m talking to you!

  • Majina – Take someone with you

Majina o kwé – Take that woman with you

Gwi majina ne o gdanes? – Will you take your daughter with you?

Nwi majina o ngwes – I will take my son with me

  • Byéna – Bring someone

Nwi byéna o ngyéyom wabek – I will bring my mother tomorrow

Nemo ggi byéna ne? – Did you bring a dog?

  • Najdo – To Ask

Ode se énajdoyan – This is what I’m asking for

Nwi najdo o nokmes – I will ask my grandmother

  • Natowa – To ask someone

Nwi natowa o – I will ask him/her

Ngi natowa o – I asked him/her

  • Ashtek – Turn

Nin ashtek – My turn

Gin ashtek – Your turn

Win ashtek   –  His/her turn

Ninan ashtek  –  Our turn (not yours)

Ginan ashtek – (all of us) Our turn

Ginwa ashtek  – Y’alls’ turn

Winwa ashtek –  Their turn

Ahyashtek! – Take turns!

  • Wzhita – To get ready

N’okmes wzhitat – My grandmother is getting ready

Nde wzhita – I am getting ready

Nwi wzhita éwi zhyayan odanek – I will get ready to go to town

  • Zhigénma – To Hate Someone

Nzhigénma o nene – I hate that man

Nzhigénmek o nene – That man hates me

  • Debanawen – Love

There are other words for love, this is the most common

Gdebanen – I love you

Ndebana o kwé  – I love that woman

Ndebana o nene – I love that man

Ndebana o ndekwéyom  – I love my wife

Ndebana o ndeniyem – I love my husband

Ndebana o ngwes  – I love my son

Ndebana o ndanes  – I love my daughter

  • Mikwénma – To remember someone

O kwé nmikwénma – I remember that woman

Gmikwénma ne o? – Do you remember him/her?

  • Wdeténma – To Worry about someone

Ndeténma o ndenim – I am worried about my husband

Ndeténma o ndanes – I am worried about my daughter

  • Ménsezwa – To embarrass someone

Ngi ménsezwa o gigabé – I embarrassed that boy

Ngi ménsezwek o kwé – That woman embarassed me

gGi ménsezwen – You embarrassed me

  • Mje’nwa – To challenge someone

Ngi mje’nwa o – I challenged him/her

Ngi mje’nwak – I challenged them

Ngi mje’nak – He/she challenged me

  • K’kénma – To know someone

Nk’kénma o kwé – I know that woman

Nk’kénmek o kwé – That woman knows me

Gk’kénmen – I know you

Gk’kénem ne? – Do you know me?

  • Damagé – To Defend

Gi damagéwat wodanmewa gi gijidak – The warriors defended their village

  • Mamkadénma – Be surprised by someone

Ngi mamkadénma o gigabé – That boy surprised me/I was surprised by that boy

This could also express amazement, as in:

Nde mamkadénma o ndanes – I am amazed by my daughter

  • Migana – To Fight Someone

Nwi migana o nene – I will fight that man

Ngi migana o nene wnago – I fought that man yesterday

  • Babwi’a – To Wait for Someone

Nde babwi’a o ndenim – I am waiting for my husband

Nde babwi’a o ndekwéyom – I am waiting for my wife

Nde babwi’ek o ndenim – My husband is waiting for me

  • Mingo – To be given

Mingaswen ngi mingo o ngyé – I was given a gift by my mother

Ode dopwen ngi mingomen o ndansénan – We were given this table by our daughter 

  • Mina – Give something to someone

Mina ode kemsagen se o g’os – Give this ax to your father

Mina ode mbop se o gzheshé – Give this soup to your uncle

Mina ode shkemot se o g’okmes – Give this bag to your grandmother

Mina ode migwen se o gmeshomes – Give this feather to your grandfather

  • Ak’kwéna – Embrace someone, Hug someone

Ngi ak’kwéna o nshimés – I hugged my little brother

Ak’kwénashen – Give me a hug

Gi ak’kwénashet – H/s gave me a hug

  • Jéma – To Kiss

Nwi jéma o – I will kiss him/her

Ngi jéma o – I kissed him/her

Ggi jéma ne o?  – Did you kiss him/her?

Gda jéma o – You should kiss him/her

Jémshen – Kiss me

Gda jémshen  – You should kiss me

  • Neshkama – Rebuke someone

Ngi neshkama o penojé – I rebuked that child

Nwi neshkama o gigabé ébambetot shote – I will rebuke that boy running around here

  • Nkweshmo’a – To meet someone

Ngi nkweshmo’a o nene wnago – I met that man yesterday

Wdabjeton ode zheshmowen gishpen énkweshmo’ayen weye ngoji – Use this language if you meet someone somewhere.

  • Penmo – To depend on someone

Gin se mteno épenmoyan odo pi – You are the only one I depend on right now.

Gin se mteno épenmoyak odo pi – You are the only one we depend on right now.

  • Bapa – To Laugh at someone

Ngi bapa o kwé – I laughed at that woman

Ngi bapa o nshimé – I laughed at my little brother

  • Bozho – Hello (a formal greeting, usually in the context of shaking hands with someone.)

Bozho jayék – Hello all

Bozho, ni je na? – Hello, how are you?

Bozho, ni je éshnekasyen? – Hello, what is your name?

  •   Wyézhma – Fool someone

Ngi wyézhma o nene – I fooled that man

Ngi wyézhmek o nene – That man fooled me

  • Gatwénma – To Protect Someone

Ngi gatwénma o nshimé – I protected my little brother

Gi gatwénman o kwé ni gigyagoyen – That woman protected the girl

  • Mtasdéwa – To tell someone off

Ngi mtasdéwa o – I told him/her off

Ngi mtasdéwek – I was told off.

  • Pkenagé – To Win

Gi pkenagé ne? – Did you win?

Cho ngi pkenagési – I didn’t win.

  • Pkenwa – To beat someone in a contest

Nwi pkenwa o shkenwé – I will beat that young man (at some kind of contest)

Ngi pkenwa o kwé – I beat that lady (at a contest)

  • Ankenotagé – Translate

Gwi ankenotagé ne? – Will you translate?

Gwi ankenotagéshen ne? – Will you translate for me?

  • Wdazgenjénéwen – The Act of Shaking Hands

Wdazgenjénashen – Shake hands with me

Wdazgenjéna o kewézi gishpen éwabmayen ibe – Shake hands with that old man if you see him over there

  • Nizhokmetsen – Help yourself

Nizhokmetsok – Help yourselves

Nizhokmetsen éje wisneyen – Help yourself to something to eat

Various Bodewadmimwen

Bonye wit – finished/es, he/she  (needs prefix)

Bon gizh – to finish s.t.

Gizh – finish.

Gizhi – finished.

Zhabshkan – h/s finishes, accomplishes s.t.

Bonshkat – h/s finished s.t.

Gizhita – to finish s.t.

Gizhitat – h/s finishes s.t.

Gizhtot – h/s finishes s.t.

Gizhton – to finish s.t.  (inan.)

Zheto – to make s.t.

Neto – to try s.t./try/attempt.

Shketo – to make an attempt.

Ewdadset – h/s who was born.

Gi wdaze – that one was born.

Egi nigyan – I was born.

Egi mashkayan – I flew.

Egi pabmashkayan – I flew all over or I flew all around.

Egi wdadsiyan – when I was born.

Egi nigyan – when I was born.

Kyendesen – hurry.

Wewendesen – hurry.

Wjandan kyenep – cook quickly s.t.  (inan.)

Zhishjegen/jigtegen – broom.

Also jishtegen – broom.

Zhibawaseya – transparent   (inan.)

Zhibawasezi – transparent   (anim.)

Zhabwatezigwa – ice (referring to the opaque quality)

Zhibawase mjedasnen – sheer stockings.

Zhabwate’egen mjedas – sheer nylon stocking.

Bkwakwet – ball.

Wizhgebkwakwet – hard ball.

Wagjaya bkwade – curve ball.

Nisaj bkwade – sinker ball.

Gzyeka bkwade – fast ball.

Nenjis bkwade – knuckle ball.

Bgeshnem bkwade – drop ball.

Azhtoge bkwade – change up ball.

Giwshkwe bkwade – corkscrew ball.

Bimskwem bkwade – corkscrew ball.

Gonaken bkwade – knuckle ball.

Medagwegwet I kigdowen – that’s an interesting subject.

Medagwegwet I – that’s interesting!

Gete medagwegwet – velly intellesting!

Emedagwegwat – they’re having an interesting time….

Mkedewkonye – priest or black robe.

Msenagkesget – secretary.

Msenazget – photographer.

Wzhobyewmsenazget – artist or painter.

Msenabiget – artist.

Various Neshnabe Games.

Mamkeznewen – moccasin game  (man’s game)

Bnekwe – woma’s bowl game.

Epeskewewen – another word for woman’s bowl game….

                         Associated with a form of lacrosse game with it….

Egsegkewat – they are playing the women’s dice game/bowl game.

Ksekenek – old style word for bowl and dice  (belonging to the women)

Epeski’a – another word for woman’s ball game.

Pegnegwen – Lacrosse.

Pagishenak – racket.

Sheshawinitjiken – cup and pin game.

Mzekwage – the icicle/could also be used to describe a fluttering bird,

usually an eagle, how they seem to hang in one spot while fluttering.

Nizgikdadwa – bother s.o.

Nizgakdadwat – bother each other.

Nizgikwat – they bother s.o.

Nnigiskwa – I bother s.o.

Nnizgikdadmen – we – you bother s.o.

Gnizgikdadmen – we + you bother s.o.

Mskogat – yarn belt.

Mskogaden – plural.

Meme – piliated woodpecker.

Memeyek – plural.

Mikjewitaget – work for s.o.  (people).

Anokagiget – a worker for hire.

Nokana – to hire s.o.

Nwi nokanage – I will hire s.o.

Pepij – once in awhile.

Mbish nwi wzan – I’m going to boil water.

Gwi ndo mbes – are you going to take a bath?

Neskwe – brush hair.

Gzi yabde – he/she brushes his/her teeth.

Nwi gzi yabde – I will brush my teeth.

Gzi yab deon – brush your teeth!

Ga bme je bgeshyen – where you camp.

Ga bme je bgeshyek – where you folks camp.

Ga bme je bgeshyan – where I camp.

Bakwiyangemek – tent.

Bebkoyangemek – cloth tent.

Nso’egan – wigwam/teepee, a tripod house….

referring to the tripod needed to support the dwellings they     used to make and cover with whatever…

negekgemek – bark house.

Shkwadem – door.

Gashkika’on – threshold.

Wasejgen – window. (literally, s.t. you can see light through).

Waskonenjegas – small lamp.

Waskonenjegen – light.

Nibwaskonenjegen – floor lamp.

Naken – rug.

Aneskewes – small throw rug.

Pegwen – mat, as in cat tail.

Beshmonkojgen – large rug.

Dopwen – table.

Jibtebwenen – chairs.

Jibtebwen – chair.

Pedyebwen – s.t. to sit on.

Pedyebwenen – plural.

Mbagen (en) – bed/beds.

Waboyan (en) – blanket/blankets.

Bakweshmowen (en) – pillow/pillows.

Wnagen (en) – dish/dishes.

Bdekjigen (en) – fork/forks.

Taswen – cupboard/closet.

Gzhabkezgen – stove.

Deschegen – shelf; also desk or a low table.

Atsek – room.

Datseknan – add a room.

Pakwan – roof.

Shpemsegen – ceiling.

Atsekwnegadek – a specific room.

Koman – knife.

Wagakoman – curved blade knife.

Zhadi – arrow.

Pekwe (yen) – arrow  (referring to the straight shaft of the arrow).

                        they were very straight, like the cat tails shafts….

Nwib – arrow  (referring to the sharpened projectile point).

Newi – projectile, usually a shell

Mtegwab – bow.

Megos – awl.

Jishkwajgen – scraper.

Megeshkan – hook.

Biwabkon – flint.

Biwabken – iron striker.

Bodwe – make a fire.

Shkwede – fire.

Msen – firewood.

Emkan (en) – spoon/spoons.

Mtegemkwan (en) – wooden spoon (s).

Kwabgen – cup or dipper.

Kwabegas – small cup or small dipper.

Mnekwajgen – s.t. to drink from, usually a cup.

Begwedemget – it is dry.

Begwedejgadek – dryer.

Ksinjegadek – washer.

Wnagenksinjegadek – dish washer.

Zhoshkwe’en – iron.

Zhoshkwe’an – to iron s.t.

Itsge – dye.

Itsgeke – to dye s.t.

Begwedege – drying s.t.

Gepisege – parching s.t.

Pegejis segat – threshing s.t.

Noshketon – winnowing.

Seshjegen – set the table.

Sesh che gen – another spelling.

Mneschegen – straighten things, put things in order.

Nazhikege – scrape, as in a hide.

Jizhikwaige – scrape-stretch a hide.

Zhi shibwaige – stretch a hide over a frame.

Gazhko – shave or scrape off with a sharp knife.

Gazhke’a o – to scrape or shave s.o.

Penejegewen – persistense.

Awanjegewen – perserverance.

Zhiptem – stubborn.

Kwtegwe – stubborn.

Mishkwes – diligent.

Minwewes – hard working/enterprising.

Mamwe je pi – most of the time.

Odo pi – at this time.

Ode zhe pi – right now!

Iw pi – then.

Iw pi je – when.

Iw she pi – at that time.

Megwe pi – long time ago/or a long way off.

Mno wi pi – long time ago.

Ibe pi – over there.

Iw je pi – it was then.

Zhote zhi – over here.

Ezhi – over there.

Wesibe – way over there.

Wa gin negwne – oh, so it’s you!

Wi pe – to lye with s.o.

Ndo wi pe – to go lye with s.o.

Ndo wi pe ma’a o nde kweyom pkonyak – I will lye with my wife tonight.

Wi pe mesh – lye with me.

Moshkabwadan – add liquid to a pot or kettle.

Pabwe – add s.t. to soup or a pot.

Pabwewiyanabo – stew.

Nmoshkabwadan – I add liquid to a pot or kettle.

Kwech – yet!

Wasemajishkamowen – electricity.

Wasemowen – another form of electricity.

Shpemwnagendapnewen – satellite.

Bemisiwnagewen – another satellite.

Mawandonan – weld.

Mawandojege – welder.

Winkeshage – carver/one who carves.

Nnaikwat – to fix s.t.

Dabyankewnene – mechanic.

Wasemownene – electrician.

Psakwnemownene – another electrician.

Psakwnemowen – electricity.

Inanemowen – air/oxygen.

Nese – breathe.

Anemo – breathe.

Nemwin – breath





Anemowen – s.o.’s  breath.

Mbeknam – breathless.