Locatives, verbs and such


In Potawatomi, you can take a noun and turn it into a “locative.”  The meaning of the “locative” form can range from “at the ____”, “in the ____”, “on the ___”,”near the ___”, “by the _____”, etc.  There are other words that give specific locations.

Noun                                                 Locative

Dopwen (table)                               Dopwenek

Wawabmowen (mirror)               Wawabmonek

Mbagen (bed)                                 Mbagnek

Wigwam (house)                            Wigwamek

Dabyan (car)                                    Dabyanek

Waséjgen (window)                      Waséjgenek

Taswen (closet or cabinet)          Taswenek

Shkemot (bag)                                Shkemotek

Gokbenagen (basket)                    Gokbenagnek

Shkwadém (door)                          Shkwadémek

Mbes (lake)                                      Mbesek

Zibi (river)                                        Zibik

Mtegwaki (forest)                          Mtegwakik

Shkwengen (reservation)            Shkwengenek

Odan (town)                                    Odanek

Tkep (spring)                                   Tkepik

Gtegan (garden)                             Gteganek


Some words to express “no” in Potawatomi are:

            No                                           Cho

            No way                                  Cho wi

            Impossible                            Chomamda

            Not yet                                  Chomshe

            Never                                     Cho wika

            Nothing                                 Cho gégo

            No one                                  Cho weye

            Nowhere (anywhere)       Cho ngoji

When using this word with verbs, use a “si” with the verb if the verb itself is negative (to express don’t or not).


            Cho ngi wisnesi                               No, I didn’t eat

            Chomshe ngi wisnesi                    No, I didn’t eat yet

            Chomamda nwi byasi ngom       I can’t come today (it’s impossible)

            Cho gégo ngi zhechkési                I didn’t do anything

            Cho weye gi nibwesi ibe               No one stood there

            Cho ngoji ngi zhyasi                      I didn’t go anywhere

For verbs that have a suffix (we, y’all, and they), the “si” goes before the suffix.

            Cho ngi wisnesimen                       No, we (-) didn’t eat

            Chomshe ngi majisimen               We (-) haven’t left yet

            Chomamda gwi nim’edisimen    We (+) can’t dance (it’s impossible)

            Chomamda gwi bmadgésim        You all can’t swim (it’s impossible)

            Cho wika migadisik                        They never fight

Types of Verbs

Animate Action Verbs – Independent Indicative

Simply put, this is the one subject, one verb sentence.  I go, I walk, I run.  This basic pattern is one that you will need to recognize as we go forward.

Independent Indicative Verbs – The Short Form

            Nin (I)                         N + verb

            Gin (you)                  G + verb

            Win (he/she)           verb

            Ninan (we – )            N + verb + men

            Ginan (we + )           G + verb + men

            Ginwa (you pl.)       G + verb + m

            Winwa (they)          verb + k

Verbs that end in “é” are the most common and the easiest to work with:

            Ngiwé                        I go home

            Ggiwé                        You go home

            Giwé                          He/she goes home

            Ngiwémen                We (-) go home

            Ggiwémen                We (+) go home

            Ggiwém                    You (pl.) go home

            Giwék                        They go home

“I” verbs are formed in this example:

            Nmikchéwi               I work

            Gmikchéwi               You work

            Mikchéwi                  He/she works

            Nmikchéwimen      We (-) work

            Gmikchéwimen      We (+) work

            Gmikchéwim           You (pl.) work

            Mikchéwik               They work

“O” verbs are formed as in this example:

            Nked                          I say

            Gked                          You say

            Kedo                          He/she says

            Nkedmen                  We (-) say

            Gkedmen                  We (+) say

            Gkedom                    You say (pl)

            Kedwik                      They say

Here are some irregular verbs:

            Nzhya                        I go

            Gzhya                        You go

            Zhyé                           He/she goes

            Nzhyamen                We (-) go

            Gzhyamen                We (+) go

            Gzhyam                    You (pl.) go

            Zhyék                         They go

            Nbya                          I come

            Gbya                          You come

            Byé                             He/she comes

            Nbyamen                  We (-) come

            Gbyamen                  We (+) come

            Gbyam                      You (pl) come

            Byék                           They come

            Ndodma                    I smoke

            Gdodma                    You smoke

            Wdemé                     He/she smokes

            Ndodmamen           We (-) smoke

            Gdodmamen           We (+) smoke

            Gdodmam                You (pl.) smoke

            Wdemék                   They smoke

Nwisen                      I eat

            Gwisen                      You eat

            Wisne                        He/she eats

            Nwisnemen              We (-) eat

            Gwisnemen              We (+) eat

            Gwisnem                  You (pl.) eat

            Wisnik                       They eat

            Njibtep                      I sit

            Gjibtep                      You sit

            Jibtebe                       He/she sits

            Njibtebmen              We (-) sit

            Gjibtebmen              We (+) sit

            Gjibtebem                You (pl) sit

            Jibtebwak                 They sit

            Nnibwe                     I stand

            Gnibwe                     You stand

            Nibwe                        He/she stands

            Nnibwemen             We (-) stand

            Gnibwemen             We (+) stand

            Gnibwem                  You (pl.) stand

            Nibwek                      They stand

            Nbos                          I ride

            Gbos                          You ride

            Bose                           He/she rides

            Nbosmen                  We (-) ride

            Gbosmen                  We (+) ride

            Gbosem                    You (pl.) ride

            Boswik                       They ride

Additional suffixes…

-wak, -wek, and –wik often appear at the end of Win and Winwa verb forms. 

Animate Descriptive Verbs

These are often a surprise to learners, because most of these verbs would be considered adjectives in English.  They are verbs of being in a state of something.  Here are some examples of Verbs that describe the state of being of an Animate Subject:

  1. Bkedé                                                To be Hungry
  2. Gashknabagwé                               To be Thirsty
  3. Mbiwé                                               To be Wet
  4. Kébigwé                                            To be Blind
  5. Dépseni                                             To be Full (of food)
  6. Bigéje                                                 To be Cold
  7. Wizhge                                              To be Strong (physical)
  8. Mgegeno                                          To be Large
  9. Gachiye                                             To be Small
  10. Békadze                                            To be Calm/Patient
  11. Zegze                                                 To be Afraid
  12. Yabyétze                                           To be Lazy
  13. Bmadze                                             To be Alive
  14. Zhewébze                                         To happen to someone
  15. Gkadze                                              To be Rich
  16. Gdemagze                                        To be Poor
  17. Ninoze                                               To be Weak
  18. Mishkweze                                       To be Strong (emotional/spiritual)
  19. Minwewze                                       To be Ambitious/Hardworking
  20. Mamkaze                                         To be Surprised
  21. Kyébatze                                           To be Naughty/Foolish
  22. Ntagze                                               To be Sad
  23. Shkadze                                            To be Angry
  24. Nodagwze                                        To be Noisy
  25. Akwadze                                           To be Anxious

Verbs 1 – 9 are formed more like Animate Action Verbs, while verbs 10-25, ending with –ze, have their own unique conjugation pattern. 

            Nbekté                                  I am hungry

            Gbekté                                  You are hungry

            Bkedé                                    He/she is hungry

            Nbektémen                          We (-) are hungry

            Gbektémen                          We (+) are hungry

            Gbektém                               You all are hungry

            Bkedék                                  They are hungry

            Ngashknabagwé                 I am thirsty

            Ggashknabagwé                 You are thirsty

            Gashknabagwé                   He/she is thirsty

            Ngashknabagwémen        We (-) are thirsty

            Ggashknabagwémen        We (+) are thirsty

            Ggashknabagwém             You all are thirsty

            Gashknabagwék                 They are thirsty

            Nbigéj                                    I am cold

            Gbigéj                                    You are cold

            Bigéje                                     He/she is cold

            Nbigéjmen                           We (-) are cold

            Gbigéjmen                           We (+) are cold

            Gbigéjem                              You all are cold

            Bigéjek                                  They are cold

            Ngachi                                   I am small

            Ggachi                                   You are small

            Gachiye                                 He/she is small

            Ngachimen                           We (-) are small

            Ggachimen                           We (+) are small

            Ggachim                               You all are small

            Gachiyek                               They are small

-ze Verb Conjugation

When the first sound in a double consonant is muted, that means that they are blended together so the second sound is prominent.  If a word ending with a vowel comes before that word, you hear both sounds clearly.

            Nbmades                                          I am alive

            Gbmades                                          You are alive

            Bmadze                                             He/she is alive

            Nbmadsemen                                  We (-) are alive

            Gbmadsemen                                  We (+) are alive

            Gbmadsim                                        You all are alive

            Gbmadzik                                         They are alive

            Nshkades                                          I am angry

            Gshkades                                          You are angry

            Shkadze                                            He/she is angry

            Nshkadsemen                                 We (-) are angry

            Gshkadsemen                                 We (+) are angry

            Gshkadsim                                       You all are angry

            Shkadzik                                           They are angry

            Ntages                                               I am sad

            Gtages                                               You are sad

            Tagze                                                 He/she is sad

            Ntagsemen                                       We (-) are sad

            Gtagsemen                                       We (+) are sad

            Gtagsim                                             You all are sad

            Gtagzik                                              They are sad

            Ngedmages                                      I am poor

            Gedmages                                        You are poor

            Gdemagze                                        He/she is poor

            Ngedmagsemen                             We (-) are poor

            Ggedmagsemen                             We (+) are poor

            Ggedmagsim                                   You all are poor

            Gdemagzik                                       They are poor

Other orders…


            Cho ntagzesi                                    I’m not sad

            Cho nshkadzesi                               I’m not angry

            Cho she yabyétzesi o                     He/she is really not lazy

            Cho ngekadzesimen                      We (-) are not rich

            Cho gi kyébatzesik gnijansek      Your children were not naughty


            Bémadzet                                         The living one

            Bémadsejek                                     The living ones (people)

            Békadzet                                           The calm one

            Békadsejek                                       The calm ones

            Békdét                                               The hungry one

            Békdéjek                                           The hungry ones

            Kyébatzet                                         The naughty ones

            Kyébatsejek                                     The naughty ones


            Gi migadiwik gi bémadsejek égi nshkadsewat

                        Those people were fighting that were angry

            Gi nshkadzik gi bémadsejek égi migadiwat

                        Those people were angry who were fighting

            Odanek nwi zhyamen éwi kyébatsiygo

                        We (-) will go to town to be naughty

            Bmadgé o gigabé égmegishek éwi wizhget

                        That boy swims everyday to be strong (physically)

Text Box: N + verb 
G + verb
N + verb + men
G + verb + men
G + verb + m
Verb + k
Conjugation of verbs ending in -wé and yé

Giwé – to go home

Wébiwé – to run away

Mnekwé – to drink

Giskonyé – to get undressed

Biskonyé – to get dressed

Ngiwé            N + giwé                    I go home

Ggiwé            G + giwé                    You go home

Giwé              Giwé                          He/she goes home

Ngiwémen    N + giwé + men       We– go home

Ggiwémen    G + giwé + men       We+ go home

Ggiwém        G + giwé + m            Y’all go home

Giwék            giwé + k                     They go home

Nwébiwé                              N + wébiwé              I run away

Gwébiwé                              G + wébiwé              You run away

Wébiwé                                Wébiwé                    He/she runs away

Nwébiwémen                      N + webiwé + men             We- run away

Gwébiwémen                      G + wébiwé  + men            We+ run away

Gwébiwém                          G + wébiwé + m                  Y’all run away        

Wébiwék                              wébiwé + k                           They run away

Ngiskonyé                N + giskonyé                        I get dressed

Ggiskonyé                 G + giskonyé                        You get dressed

Giskonyé                   giskonyé                               He/she gets dressed

Ngiskonyémen        N + giskonyé + men           We- get dressed

Ggiskonyémen        G + giskonyé + men           We+ get dressed

Ggiskonyém             G + giskonyé + m                Y’all get dressed

Giskonyék                 giskonyé + k                         They get dressed

What do these mean?





Ggiwém ne?


Gbiskonyé ne?


Wébiwék gi nemoshek

Gmnekwé ne?



Nmnekwé                                         I am drinking/I drink

Biskonyék                                         They are getting dressed/they get dressed

Nwébiwémen                                  We- are running away/we- run away

Ggiskonyémen                                We+ are getting undressed/we+ get dressed

Ggiwém ne?                                    Are y’all going home?/do y’all go home?

Mnekwék                                         They are drinking/they drink

Gbiskonyé ne?                                Are you getting dressed?/do you get dressed?

Nmnekwémen                                We- are drinking/we- drink

Wébiwék gi nemoshek                 Those dogs are running away

Those dogs run away

Gmnekwé ne?                                 Are you drinking?/do you drink?

Ggiwémen                                        We+ are going home/we+ go home


Wne ste tan                                         He/she understands it

                                                            (what is being said)

Gne ste tan ne?                                    Do you understand it?

Wne stotwan                                       He/she understands him/her

Gne sto to ne?                                     Do you understand me?

Gne sto twa ne?                                   Do you understand him/her?

Gne sto twak ne?                                 Do you understand them?

Gne sto ta gwnan ne?                          Does he/she understand us?

Gne sto ta gwnanek ne?                      Do they understand us?

Jo gne ste tos non                                I don’t understand you.

Gne sto tan ne i?                                

Do you understand that?

Gne sto tam ne i?

            Do you people understand that?

Ahau, nse tem ok ode

            Ok, understand this!

Ne sto tan

            I understand!

Ne sto tamen

            We understand! (excl.)

Gne sto tamen

            We understand! (incl.)

Gne sto tamen ne?

            Do we understand? (incl.)

Jo, gne ste to snon

            I don’t understand you.

Gne sto twa ne?

            Do you understand him/her?

Gne sto towem ne?

            Do you people understand me?

Gne sto twen

            I understand you.

Nse ta gwse

            He/she is understandable!

Gne ste townem

            I understand you people.

Jo, gne ste to wso nem.

            I don’t understand you guys.

Gi gne ste tam ne ga wje yajmoawat gi kékyajek wnago

            Did you understand what those elders told the people yesterday?

Gne sto twam ne ga wje kedyan

            Do you all understand what I said?

Gne sto tam ne i nga ket?

            Do you people understand what I said?

Ahau, gse tem ok jayék éktot ode kewézi

            Ok, understand everything this old man says!


            Listen (all of you)

Ahau, bsetmok jayék éktowat gi nakéndemwajek mine gsetemok jayék i ézhyayen ibe émawjeshnowat gi neshnabék.

            Ok, listen (all of you) to everything these wise ones say to you all and understand all they say when you go over there where those Indians have gathered!

Bno wi pi égi penojéwiyak pené she gi yajmowat ibyé nebgeshmok gi kékyajek.

            Long ago when we were children always those elders spoke to us when evening came.

Bama she pi gwi byé na wat ni kenomagewnen bwamshe ebyat o gatikno.

            They will bring those teachings back before this spotted eagle returns!

Mano gwi zhe wébet mine!

            It will happen again!

Gwi gne sto twak jayék gin wa i byé zhe wébek i

            They will all understand when it happens!

Verbs, verbs and more verbs

mkedewa               VII                      black it is

ptak wshka                                                    run into

manedon                                           a lot of it

manek                                             a lot of people

namma                  VTA                 accuse s.o./blame

wijewe                                             acommpany

datsuknan                                                     add a room

pabwe                   VAI                   add s.t. to a pot

dgosek                   VII                  added/put with s.t.

wesha                                             adopt him/her

gwesa                    VTA                 afraid of him/her

kwe’taje                                      afraid(meek for no reason)

bmadze                                             alive he is

nshikewze                                           alone

nkwetan                 VTI                     answer it

Nkwetwa                                          answer s.o.

gke’wa                                             appoint s.o.

kkandwe                VAI            argue start Simmeral and Rhodes

mzhengazo                                        arrested

dgweshen                                           arrive

bgumboze                                        arrive by car

bgumse                                           arrive by foot

bgum bto                                        arrive running

me’nshema                                 ashamed make s.o.(by word

menshe ze                                      ashamed/embarrassed

ndedmo                                            ask for s.o.

natage                                              ask questions

natowa                                               ask s.o.

ninda an                                       asks him/her to bring

kwabnoje                                         babysitting

gzhadawso                                     babysitting (N)

myanek                 VII                        bad

myane’ndem                                      bad feeling

dasbdon                                            bandaging

mgo/ mgowak                                              barking

gzhibigzhe                                                 bath he is taking

bgeze                                               bath/swim

bigshka                                         be broken/wore out

dkaboya                                          be cold a liquid

bige’btot                 VAI              Be exhausted from running

gzhadze                 VAI                   be glad/lively

ye                                                 be in a place animate

te                                                 be in a place inanimate

yawe                                                  be s.o.

bdegde’k                VII                     be somewhere

mdomneske                                         bead

dadokmebe                                         behave

gishde’ewa                                               belief from the heart

debwetan                                           believe it

debwetwa                                         believe s.o.

mgugno                 VAI                     big he is

mshamget              VII                       big it is

zgubwe                                               bite

tekwa                                            bite s.o. simmeral

wisken                                              bitter it is

mkedewze             VAI                   black he/she is

namedtwa              VTA                     blame

shwendagze                                                   blessing

bashktene                                    blew up/exploded it did

gibingwe                                            blind

zan                                                      boil

skugmeze                                  boiling out water from pot

dbeshka                                      born literally dropped out

muhznemowa        VTA                borrow from s.o.

nizgikwa                                           bother s.o.

nizgikwa                                           bother s.o.

kadenge                                          braiding(hair)

wedase                                             brave he/she is

pkwesgen ke                                              bread making

bokshka                                              broke

bokjanegnama        VTA                broke his/her nose

bokjaneshen                                               broke my nose

gziyabdeo                                                     brush teeth

zhege                                               build a home

jagakte                                            burned all up

jagakso                                            burned up he is

jagzan                                              burning it

webakwne                                      burning starting

jagde                                                 burnt it is

jagzo                                             burnt it is animate

mengji                                                burp

ngowa                                               bury s.o.

Ngo’wa                                             bury s.o.

ggengowa                                   bury s.o. with something

moshtobot                                          bushy

mishte’be                                          bushy head

dmze                                           busy ndotmes- I am busy

gishpnedon                                                     buy it

gishpnetwa            VTA                buy it for him/her

shegnona                                         call on phone

zhenkaso               VTI                    called he/she is

nedma                   VTA                  calls him/her

bgesh                                                  camp

bye-wiwzhet                                               carry a pack

bmowdon                                          carry it

gwdemodon                                    Catch it(fish??)

notkwewe                                       catting around

mjenwa                  VTA                  Challenge s.o.

atkezne                                             change shoes

askonye                                          changing clothes

dajton                                               changing it

bumnashkowa                                               chase s.o.

zhnashkowa           VTA                    chase/send

zagdenashka                                               chased outside

wyeshma               VTA             cheat him/her/ make a fool

dbabma                  VTA                 check on him/her

dbabdan                 VTI                    Check on it

shashagwe                                           chew

gishkme                                           chewing snuff

penojewi                                            child to be

gke’wa                                               choose s.o.

binchege                VAI                       clean

dwakweya              VII                    clear, clearing

kwedazi                                            climb a tree

gbakwne                                             close it

kapike                                               coffee make

bige’je                                                cold he is

wigbishke’                                                    collect bark

nazo                                                  color he is

nade                                                  color it is

nsekwewa              VTA                 comb his/her hair

na an kwe we                                          combing/fixing hair

mone’wa                                       come after to do harm

bye’gwashek           VAI              come ashore,nbye’gwashen-I

wje bya                                             come from

bye’                                                                   comes

neshnade’ndem                                           confused I am

jibakwe                                               cook

wjanda                   VAI                       cook

gbaton                    VTI                      cook it

kisan                                                cook it (PBP)

gbashma                VTA                 cook it animate

kiswa                                            cook it animate(PBP)

tkeze                                                  cool he is

tkeyamget              II                                                                  cool it is

negde                                                  cost it

negzo                                             cost it does animate

sostem                                                cough

dbaknege’t              VAI                  council hold it

gedaso                                                count

shagetaa                                         coward simmerall

tkenagneke                                               cradle board making

dapka debso                                                 cramp in leg

bmode                                                crawl

giwnadze                                          crazy/insane

yakwatze                                          crazy/insane

mo                                                     crying

gishkwe o                                                     cut off head

gishgzhan                                                    cut the (meat)

Nimedi                         VAI                       dance

gish kpo’kwnyamget                                       II          dark it is

gipshe’                                                  deaf

nakwnege                                            decide

penmotwa              VTA                  depend on s.o.

nshonajdot              VTI                     destroy s.t.

nshonajdage’           VAI                   destroy things

Mbo                                                    die

giwne                                           die in the throws of

zne’get                                            difficult it is

wanke                                                 dig

wankadan                                           dig it

win zhe                                       dirty body(dirty skin)

win kwuhnye                                        dirty clothes s.o. has on

wini ngwe                                                     dirty face

win zede                                          dirty foot

winenji                                             dirty hand

winze                    VAI                   dirty he/she is

win dbe                                            dirty head

winagwet                                          dirty it is

nkabawe’k             VII                      dissolve

gogi                                                    dive

dodan                    VTI                      do s.t.

zhech ke                                             do s.t.

dodma                   VTA                   do s.t. to s.o.

gishde mget                                              done cooking it is

mzenbyean                                        drawing

yabwe’                                               dream

yapwadan                                         dream of it

yabwana                                          dream of s.o.

biskonye                                            dressed

mnopso                 VAI                     dressed up

Paso                                               dried, creek bed

mnekwe                                             drink

sakge                                                drive deer

zgabyebge                                                     driving

Wenbisa                VII                   drizzle/light rain

webna                   VTA                 Dropp him/her

mizajo                                            drsssing up fancy

dewege                                        drum, pound on things

be’gwede                                           dry it is

gizhagde’               VII                      dry to be

wisne                                                   eat

wmenashknot            VAI                     eat a feast

mijen                                                  eat it

mwa                      VTA                  eat it animate

widopma               VTA                   eat with s.o.

mensheze                                      embarrassed/ashamed

mokshka                                            emerges

bidge’                           VAI                       enter

pe’at                            VTA                  escape from s.o.

bige’yekwze           VAI                    exhausted be

meskedemget                                             expensive it is

meskezo                                       expensive it is animate

zammeskedemget                            expensive too it is

wapsegamget                                    faded it is

nisat                            VAI             to go down as in lower oneself

pukshen                                           fall down

bbamgwak            VAI               fall out of bed sleeping

nshiwboze                                       fast driving

gzhye’ka                                           fast he/she is

nshiwbode                                       fast it is going

gzhe’kat                 VAI                    fast,running

gizhgamo                                         fat/large he is

mgabewze                                        fat/large he is

wik’kwge                                         feast invite to

wik’ma                                            feast invite to

shema                    VTA                    feed s.o.

Mosha                   VTI                    feel him/her

moshton                VTI                      feel it

menshegojen                               fell and were embarrassed

tkobise                                           fell in the water

naden                                               fetch/get it

migadi                         VAI                      fight

migadwa                VTA               fight with one another

mosh ke na a                                  fill it up animate

mkan                                                 find it

mkowa                  VTA                    Find s.o.

zhabshkan                                    finsh accomplish s.t.

bodwe’                                             fire build

nakezhege                                        fire stoking

gwedemojge                                   fish also gigoke

gigo ke                                         fish also gwedemojge

na I kan                                                           fix it

wawnesek             VII                    fixed wrong

na an kwe we                                 fixing hair/combin

psakwne mget        II                                  flaming/burning it is

nsewa’ket               VAI                   fletch arrows

bmese’                         VAI                       fly

bmise                                                 flyby

bmashi                                          fly/soar on wind

nagdon                  VTI                     follow it

nagna                                               follow s.o

kyebadze                                           foolish

agwadze                                        foolish even more

zhewenma             VTA             forgive s.o., have pity on

zaskokwe               VAI                       fry

zaskokwa                                       fry s.o. animate

depsenye                                             full

mojkane                 VAI                       Full

moshkene                                          full it is

tadi                                                                  gamble

mawdon                                            gathers it

widokwa                                           get along,

nana                                                 get him/her

bose                                                    get in

wdenan                                               get it

koga                                                   get out

wdetmek               VTI                      get s.t.

debna                                                 gets it

debnege                                              gets it

mina                            VTA                    Give s.o.

migwe’                         VTI                  give things away

zhya                             VAI                        go

bme-zhya               VAI                      go by

giwe                                                  goes home

wenek                   VII                    good,be (wenet)

skebgeze                VAI                 green/blue he/she is

skebgya                 VII                     green/blue it is

majigen                                           growing it is

nikmo                                                growl

bgwe jina                                          gut animate

mozho                                               haircut

dew nenji                                          hand hurts

nemowa                VTA                   hand to him

gnengadek                                       handheld s.t.

godon                                               hanging it

gojege                                               hanging it

godemget                                         hanging it is

gojgade                                      hanging it is (by someone)

mankago                                    hangover or ill from food

bdeknan                                        hangs over fire/puts

bye’-nomgek          VII                       happen

nchiwenmo                                     happy/excited

wizhgyak               VII                       hard it is

zhiptem                                            hardheaded

zhigenma               VTA               hate/doesn’t like s.o.

awdon                                                haul it

ggeshkek               VTI                      have s.t.

sa                                                   have s.t. animate

dewkwe                                      headache ndewkwe-I have

nodan                          VTI                       hear it

notage                                                hear it

gzhavgezwa           VTA                 heat s.t. (animate)

gzhabosek             VTI                   heat s.t. liquid

gze ze’kwe                                                 heating up food

gzhagmezan                                                heating water

bze’gwen                                           heavy it is

nishokmowa          VTA                  help him/her

wjitemowa             VTA                  help him/her

kanan                                                  hide

kazo                             VAI                       hide

katon                                                  hide it

gnonat                   VTA              hide something(animate)

seke                                                hide work on

na zhi ke ge                                          hide work on soften/scrape

shpeyaze                VAI                    high he/she is

shpya                    VII                      high it is

nisake                                              hill go down

kwedake                                           hill go up

nokazhwe’             VAI                    hire people

nokana                   VTA                    hire s.o.

nokana                                              hire s.o.

wepodago                                         hit I was

gbes gwe                                            hoarse

gnenowso                                         hold a baby

gnenan                                               hold it

tekwenawse                                               holding a baby

gbegwe’zet             VAI                    hollow be

nchiwnagwze                                             homely/ugly

bgosenjege                                                    hope for

bodewze                                            horney

gzhate’k                 VII                    hot be (weather)

gshatemget            II                                                                   hot it is

gzhabote                                           hot liquid

gzhede’k                VII                    hot to the touch

gzhezot                  VAI                  hot to the touch

Waone                                       howl also whipperwhill

bkede                                                hungry

giwse                                                  hunts

wiskebna               VTA            hurt by pinching or grapping

dew nenji                                                      hurt hand

wishkeshen                                                  hurt I was

gzhibi                                                 ichy

gzhibzede                                         ichy foot

gzhibedbe                                         ichy head

mankago                                    ill from food or hangover

bidek                           VII                       Inside

wik’ma                                            invite to feast

zhoshkwegan                                    ironing it

zhewebze                                          it happed

yawen                                                 it is

gzhawenjge                                        jealous

gzhawenma           VTA                  jealous of s.o.

yayengajmo                                 joke, tell funng story

gwashkseo                                         jumps

dgeshkan                                             kick

dekshkowa                                        kick s.o.

nsa                        VTA                      kill

ntawe                                             kill usually deer

tbuhgnandan                                          knock it through s.t.

kkenma                 VTA                  know him/her

me’shenma             VTA               know him/her well

kkendan                 VTI                     know it

pegze                                             laid out, passed out

metseshen                                         late really

wikayo                                      late, nwi wi kayo- I will be

yayeno                                            laugh also bapi

bapi                             VAI                  laugh also yayeno

yabyetse                                              lazy

niganit                   VAI                    lead,go first

tkobiso                                              leap water

kkendaso                                            learn it

bone’nma                                       leave him/her alone

wjektan                                           leave it behind

wjekna                                            leave s.o. behind

maji                                                    leaves

bgejwe’bna             VTA                  let go of s.o.

noskwa                  VTA                    Lick s.o.

gwijek                    VAI                  lie in the water

zhgeshek                VAI                   lie somewher

sekeswa                                             light up

megwendan                                        like it

menwendan                                        like it

menwenma                                        like s.o.

bzendage                                            listen in

bsedon                                              listen to it

dat                                                    live he does

boztase                                           load it on a vehicle

bozton                                             load it/ mail it

shkapke en                                           lock

ntagze                                               lonely/sad

gnwa                                                 long it is

ggan’gadat             VAI                    long legged

nedwabma                                      looking for him

nedwabdan                                      looking for it

meskwabdan                                     looks good

mno wabmenagwze                           looks good

zhenagwze                                  looks like/ comparision

bbekwe’sek            VII                      loose it is

ngeton                                                lose it

nike’                                                   lose s.t.

nge’at                           VTA                  lose s.t. animate

giwani                                                 lost

ngeshen                                               lost

gigiwze                                           lost both parents

geso                                                 lost s.t. he did

debana                                          love him/her/treasure

debadan                                           love/treasure it

dbesze                    VAI                    low he/she is

dbesya                   VII                      low it is

kenweske                                         lying he/she is

shkadze                                                            mad

zhabwi                                                        made it through

bozton                                                             mail it

wshton                                                  make it, ndo shton-I make it

gizhendem                                      makes up mind h/s

gkebye’at                VTA                 mark s.t. animate

wichewe                                             married

widege                                                           married

mawjeshno                                           meet

nkweshkwadwa         VAI                   meet on another

nkweshkwa            VTA                    meet s.o.

nkebye’shek            VAI                melt away nkebye’shen

nge demget            II                                                                                                                               melting it is

yabjede’ma             VTA                   mind on s.o.

niskadendem                                  mixed up thoughts

mkezne’ke                                       moccasin making

gwagnesek             VII                                      moldy it is

gziskege                                               mop

wawina                  VTA                  name him/her

nshotatse’                                                        naughty

menezo                                             needs he does

waswa                                          night shining/hunting

newe’we’gek           VII                     noise make it

newe’we’gze           VAI                    noise make it

nonawso                                             nursing

babamitawa            VTA                      obey

pitse                                                          old am so many years

doskaba                                          open eyes his/hers

bakwne                                               open it

sakwne                                               open it

dawni??                 VAI               Open mouth Martin W

mneschege                                      order put things

wzamgwak            VAI                     oversleep

dbendan                                              own it

wzhobyege                                          paint

mawnjiwe                                           party

dbe an                                               pay for it

dbuhge                                                pay he

zhikwa                                           pays back/squares up

bumwa                   VTA                  pays him/her

egwanze                                             peaceful

shishig                                                  pee

inendagze                                          permited

bmenat                   VTA                pet have one,nbemna

dapna                                             pick it up animate

pkuhb’jige                                                      pick s.t.

minke’                                            picking blueberries

kwa gwdze??                                               pile wood

bebgeshek              VAI               pitch and fall nbebgeshen

mawdonge                                         pitch in

ton                                                 place it somewhere

Gtege                                                  plant

dnekmegze                                        play (N)

bakjege                                              play ball

pekwakwto’we                                             play ball

widokwa                                            play nice

zheno                                               point at s.t.

mizi                                                                  poop

gdemagze                                        poor,pitiful

zignen                                                pour it

madmo                                                pray

madmo                                                pray

ndodaske                                      pray in beseeching way

nijanse                                          pregnant/ going to have

peshkweji                                          pregnant/fat

wenze                    VAI                   pretty he/she is

Wikbdon                                             Pull it

neshkwebzo                                        pulling off/ turning off car

posmwendik                                      Pure Love

nbegdena                                           put down

bitakojge                                    put down an offerering sema

bidapkowebna                                            put in the pot

gwidot                   VTI                put in water ngwidon

ge’zbnan                                           put it away

bitogwshe’                                               put on a another cover

gwabge                                          put on s.t. ladle s.t.

bitkezne                                            put on shoes

tot                                VTI                put s.t. somewhere, ton

gmowek                VII                     raining it is

ptak wshka ge                                   ran into s.o.

pkebze??                                         ran off the road

jibna                                             reach around for s.o.

wawichge                                            read

wawijge                 VAI                   read he/she does

wshitan                                               ready

wzhita                                                ready

mskoze                  VAI                    red he/she is

mskwa                   VII                       red it is

nangoma                VTA                  related to s.o.

nwema o                                          related to s.o.

mikwendan            VTI                    remember it

mikwenma             VTA                  remember s.o.

nweshmo                                            resting

ggagze                   VAI                     rich to be

boze                                                    ride

bmomgo                                           ride a horse

giwta’omgot                VAI                ride around horseback

pamboze                                         riding around

gziyabawdon                                      rinse dishes

gziyabawjege                                      rinse s.t.

bitobinan                                                       rinsing it

ddek                      VII                       ripe it is

dde’k also               VII                       ripe it is

neshke                                             rise from bed

bjizhge                                             roast food

bidge’je’ek              VTI                   roll inside s.t.

dedbeje’we’bna           VTA                 roll s.t. animate

dedbeje’we’bnek         VTI                  roll s.t. inanimate

pukwe                                               roofing

wawyeya mget           VII                      round it is

bnachton                                            ruins it

bbambetot              VAI                   run around s.t.

giwtabtot               VAI                   run around s.t.

gwabtot                 VAI                     run ashore

webiwe                                             run away

we’biwe                 VAI                     run away

we’bi at                  VTA                run away from s.o.

giwe’btot                VAI                   run back/home

gwe’bmebtot               VAI                      run by

gzhe kat                 VAI                     run fast

pe we t                         VAI                   run somewhere

gadzekmi                                         run, take off

bonpeto                  VAI                   Running quit

majibede                                      running/working it is

bmepto                                               runs by

giwadze                                               sad

ntagze                                               sad/lonely

z geknan                                             saves it

gishkpodze??                                     saw wood

kedo                             VAI                      Say s.t.

zhewe t                        VAI                   say s.t./ tell s.t.

na                          VTA                  say to s.o. nde na

ginmagdenen??                               saying to you I am

yajdan                                            saying/telling s.t.

gakashkewa                                         scale

ze gze                                                  scared

bdegwnuk                                        scared in dream

gwesa                    VTA                scared/afraid of him

kwe taje                       VTA                scared/afraid/meek

skono                                               school go to

gzhibekne nat             VTA                  scratch s.o. back

wabma                   VTA                   see him/her

wabdan                  VTI                       see it

nap                                                   see it/look

dawe                      VAI                       sell

dama                     VTA                  sell s.t. to s.o.

nita we                         VAI                   send for people

nita at                           VTA                   send for s.o.

nadastot                 VTI                    send for s.t.

zhnashkowa           VTA                    send/chase

shkwegwaso                                   sewing(by hand)

wjegwaso                                      sewing(by maching)

wiwdiywa              VAI                 sex with one another

wasot                     VAI                    shine nwases

pastemget               VII                 Shinning/Sunny (PBP)

baskswa                 VTA            Shoot him/her lit:explosion

pta pken mowa                                            shoot wild

tko ze                                                short he is

dkwa                                                 short it is

dkwa                     VII                      short it is

jigbegwe ge                                                 shovel snow

yakwnoge                                            sick

ngemo                   VAI                       sing

wawiswa                                        singe him animal

jiptebe                                                  sit

pbedyebe                                          sit on s.t. (N)

jajiptebe                 VAI                  sitting continue

pshin ge                                             skinning

gachabewze                                        skinny

psedetegenama                                          slapped him/her

zhoshko                                             sledding

Mbe’                                                    sleep

Wipema                                      Sleep with/by slang for sex

bbamgwak             VAI               sleepwalk or fall out of

zhoshkze               VAI                     slick to be

zhoshkwamget      II                                                                  slippery

gajbeze                                           slow drive slow

bej bozo                                            slow going

bej bede                                          slow it is going

gachiye                  VAI                     small he is

gachiye                                            small he/she is

gach nwa                                          small it is

gachinwa               VII                      small it is

mbwaka                                              smart

mno magwze                                            smell good he does

mno magwe                                   smell good it does

bijmama                VTA                  smell him/her

bijmandan                                          smell it

shomigwe                                           smile

wdema                                               smoke

bkwenemget                                     smokey it is

jachamo                                              sneeze

mdwejane ngwam                               snoring

agmose’                                             snow shoe

pamponget            VII                    snow, flurring

bindawbawdon                                         soak s.t. to clean

bijdase                                            socks putting on

nokya                                                soft it is

zhemagneshiwe                                 soldier he is

kikijwze                                         sore all over/achey

kikijpekwen                                                  sore back

gikidze                                               sore he is

kikijndebe                                                      sore head

kikijdamken                                                  sore jaw

kikij jane                                                        sore nose

notagze                                              sound

ziwek                    VII                      sour to be

majmo                                         speak in a spiritual way

zigme’ge’t              VAI                    spear things

bnachton                                            spends it

bimskwe webnan                                  spin

mnedoke                                         spirtiual doing

skowe                                                 spit

biskean                                             splitting it

bzegwe                                               stand

nibwe                                             stand stay standing

webta                                                  start

dneze                                           stay/live/hang around

Gmochke                                            steal

kwansegze                                          stingy

nkewena                                       stop pick him/her up

ngashmiye                                       stopped being

ngashka                                             stopping

ngabzo                                            stopping in a car

yatsoke                                       story telling sacred stories

mignagwze                                     strange he/she looks

myagze                                           stranger he/she is

mishkweze                                 strength/fortitude/spiritual

gzhe’wa                  VTA                strike s.t. lightly

pozaboya                VII                    Strong drink

wizhgeze                VAI                    strong to be

mjemoshek            VAI                    struck to be

na bin gade                                                     strung

zhiptem                                              stuborn

kbakde’be                                                       stupid

mamkadendem                                  surprised

gwdan                                              swallow it

mzewegwdon                                 swallow it whole

bwe’zo                                               sweating

jemozo                                            sweating he/she is

mdodo                                         sweating in a sweatlodge?

jigedege                                              sweep

bmatga                                               swim

bbamadgat             VAI                   swim around

wishgadga                                        swim strong

bgeze                                                swim/bath

we’bakwit              VAI                    swing an axe

wewebso                                          swing, sway

gnewanwe                                         tail long

zhona                     VTA              take him/her somewhere

majidon                       VTI                    Take it away

gitkezne                                           take off shoes

majidage’                VAI                    take things

kikto                            VAI                       talk

neshnabemo                                     talk indian

genona                   VTA                 talk to him/her

gnoze                                                 tall he is

bichbdan                VTI                      taste it

gwjeptan                                             taste it

bichbwa                 VTA                 Taste s.t. animate

ti ke                                                   tea make it

kenomage                                          teaching

widmowa              VTA                    tell s.o.

widmo                                               tell s.t.

debwe                                               tell truth

gweje a                   VTA                     test s.o.

gjitwa                           VTA                  test s.o. animate

gibade’ndem                                  thining foolishly

nendem                                               think

zhede a                                               think

gashknabegwe                                    thirsty

pegdon                                              Throw it

Zagjewebna                                     throw it out

pegdok                   VTI                  throw it pegdon

niswe’bnemwa        VTA              throw s.t. down to s.o.

we’bakwit              VAI               throw s.t. or swing an axe

dkobjege’t              VAI                     tie things

dkobde’k               VII                       tied be

bapsabinen                                      tighten it up

yekwze                                               tired

zhgekshen                                    tired of lying down

menepwa                                          tobacco fix

se’make                 VAI                   tobacco make

dagna                    VTA                  touch him/her

dagnan                  VTI                      touch it

odanke                                             town go to

bmekashek            VAI                    tracks make

yashtonmatwa           VTI                trade with some another

ashtonge                                          trade,exchange

nagna                                                trail s.o.

pamadze                                             travel

debana                                          treasure/love him/her

debadan                                          treasure/love it

gshketon                                             try it

gshkton                                              try it

gwekpo’we                                       turn and run

gwe’knewi                                        turn around

gwekbezo                                     turn around driving

myanek                 VII                        ugly

nchiwnagwze                                             ugly/homely

wjeshek                 VAI                   underneath to be

nestotwa                                        understand him/her

nestetan                                            understand it

dab’an                                               untying it

abumwa                                        untying it for s.o.???

abjeton                                                use it

minwe’wze                                      useful he/she is

nbwachewe                                         visit

nbwacha                VTA                  visit him/her

babwichge                                           wait

doki                                                                wake up

mejwebna                                     wake up (by shaking)

pitse’t                           VAI             walk a certain amount of time

bmose                                                            walks by

giwne’t                   VAI                  wallow around

nedwendan            VTI                                      Want it

nedwabma             VTA                 want it animate

mnowadke’t           VAI                 war dance hold one

gezhezo                                             warm he is

gnemowa              VTA                    warn s.o.

gzibinan                                                         wash it

gzibinge                 VAI                     washing

gzi ngwe                                           washing face

gzinji                                                           washing hands

gzibi gdbe                                        washing head

gzibinan                                                       washing it

gzibina                                                         washing s.o.

gwijek                    VAI                   water lie it it

biskan                                                              wear it

monshkwe                                            weed

gwzekoze                                            weighed

pitnuhgwze                                          weighs

gishktuwayo                                     whip Lorenzo

gasknezo                                             whisper

bodajge                                                        whistle,blow

wabshkeze             VAI                   white he/she is

wabshkya               VII                                      white it is

pkenage                                                            win

ngedzhewe’t            VAI             win a race,nnegdezhwe’-I won

nodek                     VII                                     windy it is

wishtkanmet               VII                                    windy very

mikchewi                                             work

mikchewitage’t            VAI                  work for people

mikchewitwa          VTA                work for someone

dzhikan                                                         work on it

nki??                                                           working on s.t.

myannowa             VTA                   wound s.o.

myan na ge                                        wounded s.t.

nebyege                                                           write

majibitmo an                                     write to him

yanzo                                         yawning he/she is ?? Lorenzo

weshkowa                                         yell loud

wzawze                  VAI                   yellow he/she is

wzawa                   VII                     yellow it is

bapton                         VTI                     laugh at it

bapa                             VTA                   laugh at s.o.

nana                             VTA                   pick up s.o.

majishke’                                        start it/growing

dbema                    VTA                    pay s.o.

Some handy verbs to know

A List of Common Action Verbs

  1. Zhechké                      To Do
  2. Giwé                            To Go Home
  3. Giwsé                          To Hunt
  4. Ktegé                          To plant  (h/s plants)
  5. Bidgé                          To Enter
  6. Zagjesé                       To Go Outside
  7. Mnekwé                     To Drink
  8. Wanké                        To Dig
  9. Wénkwéngé               To Drive
  10. Zgabyenge                 To steer, to drive
  11. Binjegé                       To Clean
  12. Gwdemojgé                To Fish
  13. Déwé’gé                     To Drum
  14. Gemo                          To sing  (h/s sings)
  15. Bmadgé                      To Swim
  16. Minké                         To Gather Berries
  17. Biskonyé                     To Get Dressed
  18. Giskonyé                     To get undressed
  19. Kewabnojé                 To watch children  (babysitting)
  20. Gzhadawso                Another babysitting
  21. Migadi                         To Fight
  22. Mikchéwi                    To Work
  23. Anoki                          To work for hire
  24. Maji                             To Leave/Go
  25. Bsegwi                        To Get Up/Rise
  26. Nim’edi                       To Dance
  27. Chikaso                       To Play
  28. Bkeso                          To Bathe/to swim  (h/s bathes0
  29. Kedo                           To Say
  30. Neshnabémo             To Speak Indian Language
  31. Zhya/zhyé                   To Go
  32. Bya/byé                       To Come/Arrive
  33. Wdema                       To Smoke
  34. Wdemé                       Another way to say to smoke
  35. Wisne                          To Eat
  36. Jibtebe                       To Sit
  37. Nibwe                         To Stand
  38. Bose                            To Ride
  39. Ye                                To be in a certain place
  40. Yawe                           State of being  (h/s is)
  41. Mzhena                      To seize, lay hold of
  42. Mawdo                       To gather
  43. Pkebna                       To pick, to reach up
  44. Dapna                         To pick, to reach down
  45. Dkobjegé                    To close a circle, to end things
  46. Débnek                       Reach for s.t.
  47. Bgedna                       to put down s.t., to lay s.t. down
  48. Mdomneké                 To bead
  49. Gokpenagé                 To make baskets
  50. Zisbakdoké                 To make sugar
  51. Msenagseké               To go to the movies, to make pictures
  52. Wjanda                       To cook
  53. Gigéno                        To cook
  54. Bmose                         To walk
  55. Bmepto                       To run
  56. Tkemsé                       To cross over
  57. Bebamsé                     To walk around, to walk about
  58. Zhonyamké                To have money
  59. Odanké                       To shop, to go to town
  60. Msenegé                    to charge things, as in credit
  61. We’e, We’uh               To loan, to give credit
  62. Dbegé                         To pay s.t.
  63. Dawé                           To buy and sell
  64. Gishnena                    To buy as in commercial buying
  65. Gishpnedo                  To buy, to shop
  66. Kigdo                          To speak, talk
  67. Néndek                       To think a certain way
  68. Nénmat                      To think a certain way about s.o.
  69. Néndem                      To think
  70. Nagdewénmat           To think of s.o.
  71. Nagdewéndek           To think of s.t.
  72. Gchenénmat              To think a lot of s.o.
  73. Mba/mbé                    To sleep
  74. Nwéshmo                   To rest
  75. Ensestek                     To understand
  76. Enseto                        To reason
  77. Nbwaka                      To reason
  78. Bsegwi                        To rise
  79. Doki                            To awake
  80. Bkezo                          To bathe, shower
  81. Gzingé                        To wash up
  82. Binchegé                    To clean
  83. Binakchegé                To clean
  84. Wawida                      To read
  85. Wawijgé                     To read
  86. Wab                            To see
  87. Wabma                       To see s.o.
  88. Wabdan                      To see s.t.
  89. Mina                           To give
  90. Mingo                         To receive
  91. Shema                         To feed
  92. Shemgo                      To be fed
  93. Gzinwnagé                 To wash dishes
  94. Bgedna                       To allow s.o. to do s.t.
  95. Bgednon                     To allow s.t.
  96. Binakwe’o                  To comb hair
  97. Gziyabde’o                 To brush teeth
  98. Mneschegé                To put things in order, housework
  99. Doma                          To call s.o.
  100. Gishkmé         to chew tobacco or plug tobacco
  101. Skowé             to spit as in saliva

Things we shall study next

Exercise 4: -i verbs      

These are also very easy verbs to use, and they don’t do much changing. 

Maji                            To leave

Mikjéwi                     To work

Tadi                            To gamble/play cards

Kwédasi                    To climb

Migadi                       To fight

Nim’edi                     To dance

Gogi                           To dive

Ngi maji                     N + gi + maji                         I left.

Ggi maji                     G + gi + maji                         You left.       

Gi maji                       Gi + maji                               He or she left.         

Ngi majimen            N + gi + maji + men            We- left.       

Ggi majimen            G + gi + maji + men            We+ left.

Ggi majim                 G + gi + maji + m                 Y’all left.

Gi majik                     Gi + maji + k                         They left.

Nwi nim’edi             N + wi + nim’edi                  I will dance

Gwi nim’edi             G + wi + nim’edi                  You will dance

Wi nim’edi                Wi + nim’edi                        He/she will dance

Nwi nim’edimen     N + wi + nim’edi + men     We- will dance

Gwi nim’edimen     G + wi + nim’edi + men     We+ will dance

Gwi nim’edim          G + wi + nim’edi + m          Y’all will dance

Wi nim’edik             Wi + nim’edi + k                  They will dance

Nge tadi                    N + ge + tadi                         I’m about to gamble

Gge tadi                    G + ge + tadi                         You are about to gamble

Ge tadi                       ge + tadiwak                        He/she is about to gamble

Nge tadimen            N + ge + tadi + men            We- are about to gamble

Ge tadimen              g + Ge + tadi + men            We+ are about to gamble

Gge tadim                 G + ge + tadi + m                Y’all are about to gamble

Ge tadik                    Ge + tadi + k                        They are about to gamble

Command Forms:

Majin                         leave                          Gégo majiken          Don’t leave

Mikjéwin                  work                          Gégo mikjéwiken   Don’t work

Tadin                          play cards                 Gégo tadiken           Don’t gamble

Kwédasin                  climb                          Gégo kwédasiken   Don’t climb

Migadin                     fight                           Gégo migadiken     Don’t fight

Nim’edin                   dance                         Gégo nim’ediken    Don’t dance

Gogin                         dive                            Gégo gogiken          Don’t dive

Cho nwi majisi                     Cho + n + wi + maji + si                 I won’t leave

Cho gwi mikjéwisi              Cho + g + wi + mikjéwi + si           You won’t work

Cho wi tadisi                        Cho + wi + tadi + si             He/she won’t gamble

Cho nwi kwédasesimen                Cho + n + wi + kwédasi + si + men        

We- won’t climb

Cho gwi migadisimen                    Cho + g + wi + migadi + si + men           

We+ won’t fight

Cho gwi nim’edisim                       Cho + g + wi + nim’edi + si + m  

Y’all won’t dance

Cho wi gogisik                                 Cho + wi + gogi + si + k     

They won’t dive

Practice with negatives, questions, and commands.

  1. Gégpi ne ggi giwé
  2. Cho ne ggi gapikési
  3. Gwi gtegankém ne ode niben
  4. Kwédakik ne gwi kwédasim
  5. Mégwa ne gwi nim’edi
  6. Chomamda nwi wankésimen
  7. Chomshe ne ggi zhechkésim
  8. Nangodgen gminkémen
  9. Gégo tadiken shote
  10. Gégo gogikék shote
  11. Cho ne mbishkik gi giwsési
  12. Gégo mnekwéken ode mbish
  13. Abdek gwi biskonyém
  14. Cho ne gda majisi
  15. Jak ngoji ngi pamsé
  16. Gégo wébiwéken
  17. Gégo giskonyéken shote!
  18. Ézhi tkemsén
  19. Nomye gi bmisé o bnéshi
  20. Gégo migadikék bidek
  21. Ggi gish dé’menkém ne
  22. Mégwa ne ggikitsé
  23. Nda gapiké ne
  24. Nétem nwi maji
  25. Gawa ngi mikchéwimen
  26. Namsek gwi tadimen
  27. O biskonyén
  28. Abdek ne gwi biskonyési
  29. Ge migadimen
  30. Chomamda nwi nim’edisi ngom
  31. Nsheké ngi tkemsé
  32. Gégpi ne ggi biskonyé
  33. Gwi giwémen wabek
  34. Bama nagech gwi tadimen
  35. Gégo kwédasiken o mteg
  36. Ngi gish tiké
  37. Abdek nwi zisbaktokémen
  38. Mégwa ne gwi mnekwé
  39. Nagech nwi mikchéwimen
  40. Nda bmosé ngoji
  41. Nomye nge maji
  42. Cho nde nim’edisimen
  43. Cho nde migadisimen
  44. Kiwédnon ge giwsémen
  45. Chomamda gwi gapikésimen
  46. Chomshe ne ggi minkésimen
  47. Nsheké ngi minké wnago
  48. Cho ngoji ngi gogisi
  49. Cho gégo ngi zhechkési
  1. Gégpi ne ggi giwé                                       Did you finally go home?
  2. Cho ne ggi gapikési                                    Didn’t you make coffee?
  3. Gwi gtegankém ne ode niben     Will y’all do a garden this summer?
  4. Kwédakik ne gwi kwédasim                    Will y’all climb the hill?
  5. Mégwa ne gwi nim’edi     Will you still dance?/Will you dance more?
  6. Chomamda nwi wankésimen     It’s impossible for us- to dig a hole
  7. Chomshe ne ggi zhechkésim                   Haven’t y’all done it yet?
  8. Nangodgen gminkémen                           Sometimes we+ pick berries
  9. Gégo tadiken shote                                   Don’t gamble here
  10. Gégo gogikék shote                                   Don’t dive here, y’all
  11. Cho ne mbishkik gi giwsési          Didn’t he/she hunt at the marsh?
  12. Gégo mnekwéken ode mbish                 Don’t drink this water
  13. Abdek gwi biskonyém                               Y’all need to get dressed.
  14. Cho ne gda majisi                                       Shouldn’t you leave?
  15. Jak ngoji ngi pamsé                                    I walked everywhere
  16. Gégo wébiwéken                                       Don’t run away
  17. Gégo giskonyéken shote!                         Don’t get undressed here!
  18. Ézhi tkemsén                                               Walk across over there
  19. Nomye gi bmisé o bnéshi                         That bird flew a little while ago
  20. Gégo migadikék bidek                              Don’t fight inside, y’all
  21. Ggi gish dé’menkém ne                Did y’all already pick strawberries?

   Have y’all finished picking strawberries?

  • Mégwa ne ggikitsé                                     Are you still limping?
  • Nda gapiké ne                                             Should I make coffee?
  • Nétem nwi maji                                          I will leave first
  • Gawa ngi mikchéwimen                           We- hardly worked
  • Namsek gwi tadimen                                We+ will gamble downstairs
  • O biskonyén                                                Go get dressed
  • Abdek ne gwi biskonyési                          Don’t you have to get dressed
  • Ge migadimen                                             Let’s fight
  • Chomamda nwi nim’edisi ngom It’s impossible for me to dance today
  • Nsheké ngi tkemsé                                     I walked across alone
  • Gégpi ne ggi biskonyé                               Did you finally get dressed
  • Gwi giwémen wabek                                 We+ will go home tomorrow
  • Bama nagech gwi tadimen                      We+ will gamble later
  • Gégo kwédasiken o mteg                         Don’t climb that tree
  • Ngi gish tiké                         I already made tea/I finished making tea
  • Abdek nwi zisbaktokémen                      We- must make maple sugar
  • Mégwa ne gwi mnekwé                           Will you drink more? 
  • Nagech nwi mikchéwimen                      We- will work later
  • Nda bmosé ngoji                                        I should walk somewhere
  • Nomye nge maji                             I’m about to leave in a little while
  • Cho nde nim’edisimen                              We- are not dancing
  • Cho nde migadisimen                               We- are not fighting
  • Kiwédnon ge giwsémen                           Let’s go hunting up north
  • Chomamda gwi gapikésimen      It’s impossible for us+ to make coffee
  • Chomshe ne ggi minkésimen                  Didn’t we pick berries yet?
  • Nsheké ngi minké wnago             I  picked berries alone yesterday
  • Cho ngoji ngi gogisi                                    I didn’t dive anywhere
  • Cho gégo ngi zhechkési                            I didn’t do anything

Exercise 5:  – o verbs that don’t drop

Kigdo             to talk

Madmo         to pray

Bmepto         to run **irregular like bmosé

Yajmo            to speak

Najdo             to ask

Najmo           to say

Nbémbeto                N + bmepto becomes N + bémbeto

Gbémbeto                G + bmepto becomes G + bémbeto

Bmeptowak             Bmepto + wak

Nbémbetomen       N + bmepto + men becomes N + bémbeto + men

Gbémbetomen       G + bmepto + men becomes G + bémbeto + men

Gbémbetom            G + bmepto + m becomes G + bémbeto + m

Bmeptok                   Bmepto + k

Ngi bmepto                                      N + gi + bmepto                              I ran

Ggi bmepto                                      G + gi + bmepto                              You ran

Gi bmepto                                        Gi + bmepto                                     He/she ran

Ngi bmeptomen                             N + gi + bmepto + men                 We- ran

Ggi bmeptomen                             G + gi + bmepto + men                 We+ ran

Ggi bmeptom                                  G + gi + bmepto + m                      Y’all ran

Gi bmeptok                                      Gi + bmepto + k                              They ran

Nwi madmo                         N + wi + madmo                 I will pray

Gwi madmo                         G + wi + madmo                 You will pray

Wi madmo                           Wi + madmo                        He/she will pray

Nwi madmomen                N + wi + madmo + men    We- will pray

Gwi madmomen                G + wi + madmo + men    We+ will pray

Gwi madmom                     G + wi + madmo + m         Y’all will pray

Wi madmok                         Wi + madmo + k                 They prayed

Cho ngi najdosi                   Cho + n + gi + najdo + si    I didn’t ask

Cho ggi najdosi                   Cho + g + gi + najdo + si    You didn’t ask

Cho gi najdosi                      Cho  + gi + najdo + si          He/she didn’t ask

Cho ngi najdosimen           Cho + n + gi + najdo + si + men   We- didn’t ask

Cho ggi najdosimen           Cho + g + gi + najdo + si + men   We+ didn’t ask

Cho ggi najdosim                Cho + g + gi + najdo + si + m        Y’all didn’t ask

Cho gi najdosik                   Cho + gi + najdo + si + k                They didn’t ask

Nda kigdo ne?                                 Should I talk?

Gwi kigdo ne?                                 Will you talk?

Gi kigdo ne o?                                 Did he/she talk?

Nge kigdomen ne?                         Are we- about to talk?

Gde kigdomen ne?                         Are we+ talking?

Abdek ne gkigdom?                      Do y’all need to talk?

Gégpi ne gi kigdok?                       Did they finally talk?

Nda kigdosi ne?

Gwi kigdosi ne?

Gi kigdosi ne o?

Nge kigdosimen ne?

Gde kigdosimen ne?

Abdek ne gkigdosim?

Gégpi ne gi kigdosik?

Gégo kigdoken

Gégo madmoken

Gégo bmeptoken

Gégo yajmoken

Gégo najdoken

Gégo najmoken

Plural commands:  Use the Context of the situation to determine if you are talking about multiple persons doing something (winwa), or commanding multiple persons to do something (ginwa)

Kigdon!                     Kigdok!

Madmon!                 Madmok!

Bmepton!                 Bmeptok!

Yajmon!                    Yajmok!

Najdon!                     Najdok!

Najmon!                   Najmok!


Nda kigdosi ne?                              Shouldn’t I talk?

Gwi kigdosi ne?                              Won’t you talk?

Gi kigdosi ne o?                              Didn’t he/she talk?

Nge kigdosimen ne?                      Aren’t we- about to talk?

Gde kigdosimen ne?                      Aren’t we+ talking?

Abdek ne gkigdosim?                    Don’t y’all need to talk?

Gégpi ne gi kigdosik?                    Didn’t they finally talk?

Gégo kigdoken                                Don’t talk

Gégo madmoken                           Don’t pray

Gégo bmeptoken                           Don’t run

Gégo yajmoken                              Don’t speak 

Gégo najdoken                               Don’t ask

Gégo najmoken                              Don’t say

Kigdon!         Talk!                           Kigdok!          Talk!

Madmon!     Pray!                          Madmok!     Pray!

Bmepton!     Run!                           Bmeptok!     Run!

Yajmon!        Speak!                       Yajmok!        Speak!

Najdon!         Ask!                            Najdok!         Ask!

Najmon!       Say!                            Najmok!        Say!

Intro to Conjuncts using -yan, -yen, and -yék

There are many reasons to use conjuncts, in songs, stories, questions, and explanations.  We will spread this out over several lessons to help you absorb.

The key to learning the conjunct endings is the VOWEL SOUND.  Go back over the “vowel pronunciation chart” and really pay attention to vowel sounds that you hear and speak.

To make a conjunct that refers back to I/me, use a -yan ending

To make a conjunct that refers back to you singular, use a -yen ending.

Those 2 vowel sounds are key:  for -yan, use the vowel Ah

and for -yen…… think of that -yen ending as the sound in the word Onion.  Un-yen. 

Égiwéyan                  I go home                 Égiwéyen                  you go home

Émnekwéyan          I drink                        Émnekwéyen          you drink

Ébmoséyan              I walk                         Ébmoséyen              you walk

Étkemséyan             I walk across                        Étkemséyen             you walk across

Ézhechkéyan           I do                             Ézhechkéyen           you do

Éminkéyan               I pick berries            Éminkéyen               you pick berries     

Égtegankéyan         I garden                    Égtegankéyen         you garden

Éwankéyan              I dig a hole                Éwankéyen              you dig a hole

Émajiyan                   I leave                        Émajiyen                   you leave

Émikchéwiyan         I work                        Émikchéwiyen         you work

Ébmeptoyan            I run                           Ébmeptoyen            you run

Ékigdoyan                I talk                           Ékigdoyen                you talk

Émadmoyan            I pray                         Émadmoyen            you pray

Énajdoyan                I ask                            Énajdoyen                you ask

The “É” is a factive, and it comes in the front of many conjuncts.  Sometimes it can take a tense, like égi or éwi.    It connects the conjunct to something else, either in the same sentence or in the same conversation. 

You use conjuncts when you are seeking information in a question, so let’s use them in context and practice questions.

Ni je = What                         Ni pi je = Where                  Ni je pi = When

Ni je égi zhechkéyen?       Ni pi je égi zhechkéyen     Ni je pi égi zhechkéyen

What did you do                 where did you do it                       when did you do it

Ni je éwi kigdoyen             Ni pi je éwi kigdoyen         Ni je pi éwi kigdoyen

What will you talk about  where will you talk            when will you talk

Ni je émnekwéyen             Ni pi je émnekwéyen        Ni je pi émnekwéyen

What are you drinking      where are you drinking       when are you drinking

Of course not every verb makes sense with each question. When asked a question in conjunct, you may answer in conjunct, or not, it’s up to the speaker’s preference. 

Here are some examples of conjunct answers:

Ode se égi zhechkéyan     Shote égi zhechkéyan       Nomye égi zhechkéyan

This is what I did                 I did it here                          I did it a little while ago

Ode se éwi kigdoyan         Ézhi éwi kigdoyan              Wabek éwi kigdoyan

This is what I will talk about  I will talk over there    I will talk tomorrow

Mbish émnekwéyan          Zagech émnekwéyan        Nagech émnekwéyan

I am drinking water           I am drinking outside        I am drinking later

You can also use conjuncts to connect 2 or more verbs in a sentence.

Nwi giwé éwi tikéyan                                I will go home and make tea

Kwédakik nwi pamsé éminkéyan          I will walk up the hill and pick berries

As we learn more verbs we will put more phrases together like this.

One more ending…. Ginwa, Plural You, there is a different ending to use.

Égiwéyen                  you go home           Égiwéyék                  y’all go home

Émnekwéyen          you are drinking     Émnekwéyék           y’all are drinking

Ébmoséyen              you are walking      Ébmoséyék              y’all are walking

Étkemséyen             you walk across      Étkemséyék y’all are walking across

Ézhechkéyen           you are doing          Ézhechkéyék           y’all are doing

Éminkéyen               you pick berries      Éminkéyék               y’all pick berries

Égtegankéyen         you garden               Égtegankéyék          y’all garden

Éwankéyen              you dig a hole          Éwankéyék  y’all are digging a hole

Émajiyen                   you are leaving       Émajiyék                   y’all are leaving

Émikchéwiyen         you are working     Émikchéwiyék         y’all are working

Ébmeptoyen            you are running      Ébmeptoyék             y’all are running

Ékigdoyen                you are talking        Ékigdoyék                 y’all are talking

Émadmoyen            you are praying      Émadmoyék            y’all are praying

Énajdoyen                you are asking         Énajdoyék                y’all are asking

Again, pay close attention to the vowel sounds on the end!

Ni je énajdoyen?                            What are you asking

Ni pi je éwankéyék?                      where did y’all dig that hole

Ni je pi éwi majiyen?                     when are you leaving

Ni je ézhechkéyék?                        what are y’all doing

Ni pi je ébmeptoyék?                    where are you running

Ni je émnekwéyen?                       what are you drinking

Exercise 6:  -o verbs that drop. 

Chikaso – to play

Zhenkaso – to be called

Gédaso – to count

Yayéno – to laugh

Jechamo – to sneeze

Neshnabémo – to speak Indian

Kedo – to say something

Nde chikas                N + de + chikaso – o                      I am playing

Gde chikas                G + de + chikaso – o                       you are playing

Chikasowak             Chikaso + wak                                 he/she is playing

Nde chikasmen       N + de + chikaso – o + men          we- are playing

Gde chikasmen       G + de + chikaso – o + men          we+ are playing

Gde chikasom         G + de + chikaso + m                     y’all are playing

Chikaswik                 Chikaso – o + wik                            They are playing

Ngi jecham               N + gi + jechamo – o                      I sneezed

Ggi jecham               G + gi + jechamo – o                      you sneezed

Gi jechamo               Gi + jechamo                                   he/she sneezed

Ngi jechamen          N + gi + jechamo – o + men         we- sneezed

Ggi jechamen          G + gi + jechamo – o + men         we+ sneezed

Ggi jechamom         G + gi + jechamo + m                     y’all sneezed

Gi jechamwik          Gi + jechamo – o + wik                 they sneezed

Ndezhnekas                         N + de + zhenkaso – o                   I am called

Gdezhnekas                         G + de + zhenkaso – o                   you are called

Zhenkaso                              Zhenkaso                                          he/she is called

Ndezhnekasmen                N + de + zhenkaso – o + men      we- are called

Gdezhnekasmen                G + de + zhenkaso – o + men      we+ are called

Gdezhnekasom                   G + de + zhenkaso + m                  y’all are called

Zhenkaswik                          Zhenkaso – o + wik                        they are called

Ngi ked                                  N + gi + ked – o                               I said

Ggi ked                                  G + gi + ked – o                               you said

Kedo                                      Kedo                                                  he/she said

Ngi kedmen                         N + gi + kedo – o + men                we- said

Ggi kedmen                         G + gi + kedo – o + men                we+ said

Ggi kedom                            G + gi + kedo + m                            y’all said

Gi kedwik                             Gi kedo – o + wik                            they said

Cho ngi yayénsi                   Cho + n + gi + yayéno – o + si      I didn’t laugh

Cho ggi yayénsi                   Cho + g + gi + yayéno – o + si      you didn’t laugh

Cho gi yayénosi                   Cho + gi + yayéno + si        he/she didn’t laugh

Cho ngi yayénsimen          Cho + n + gi + yayéno – o + si + men     

we- didn’t laugh

Cho ggi yayénsimen          Cho + g + gi + yayéno – o + si + men    

we+ didn’t laugh

Cho ggi yayénosim             Cho + g + gi + yayéno + si + m     y’all didn’t laugh

Cho gi yayénosik                Cho + gi + yayéno + si + k             they didn’t laugh

Ni je da kedyan?                            

Ni je ga kedyen?

Ni je ezhnekasyen?

Ni je ezhnekasyék?

Ni pi je ga chikasyan?

Ni pi je ga chikasyen?

Ni pi je ga chikasyék?

Neshnabémo                                               Bodéwadmimo

Gneshnabém ne?                                       Gbodéwadmim ne?

Abdek nneshnabémmen                          Abdek nbodéwadmimen

Gégpi ne gneshnabémom?                     Gégpi ne gbodéwadmimom?

Cho nneshnabémsi                                    Cho nbodéwadmimsi

Nangodgen gwi neshnabémmen           Nangodgen gwi bodéwadmimmen


Ni je da kedyan?                             What should I say?

Ni je ga kedyen?                             What did you say?

Ni je ezhnekasyen?                        What are you called?

Ni je ezhnekasyék?                        What are y’all called?

Ni pi je ga chikasyan?                   Where did I play?

Ni pi je ga chikasyen?                   Where did you play?

Ni pi je ga chikasyék?                    Where did y’all play?

Neshnabémon                                Speak Indian

Bodéwadmimon                             Speak Potawatomi

Gneshnabém ne?                           Do you speak Indian?

Gbodéwadmim ne?                       Do you speak Potawatomi?

Abdek nneshnabémmen              We must speak Indian

Abdek nbodéwadmimen             We must speak Potawatomi

Gégpi ne gneshnabémom?                     Do y’all finally speak Indian

Gégpi ne gbodéwadmimom?                 Do y’all finally speak Potawatomi

Cho nneshnabémsi                                    I don’t speak Indian

Cho nbodéwadmimsi                                I don’t speak Potawatomi

Nangodgen gwi neshnabémmen           Sometimes we+ will speak Indian

Nangodgen gwi bodéwadmimmen       Once in a while we+ will speak Potawatomi

On conversational phrases

Conversation Script

A:  Gwi zhya ne ge gi, ibe medatso bi nag?                

Are you going to Washington, too?

B:  Ehe, nwi zhya.                                                  

Yes, I am going.

A:  Génin nwi zhya ibe.  We gwni je wa je zhya yen?

            I’m going there too.  What are you going there for?

B:  Nwi o widokage. Gin je?                                            

I’m going there to participate.  You?

A:   Nin je wi o nim edi.                                        

I’m going there to dance.

B:  Ni jo pi, wa ne ma ji yen?                                          

When are you leaving?

A:  Eshke ge sot, ode nmebne gizes nwi maji.                       

I’m leaving on the first of March.

B:  Ni jo pi je neyap wa bme byayen?                         

When are you coming back?

A:  Ngot wadso gishek, ode nmebne gizes pi neyab wa bme byayan.

            I’ll be back on the sixth of March.

B:  Nin se wi zhe ode zisbaktokégizes eshkegesot nwi maji, mine demengizes neyap wa bme byayan

            As for me, I’m leaving the first of April, and I’ll be back in June.

Negative Phrase Conversation

A:  Njeshek ne gi bya?                                          Did you just arrive?

B:  Cho, zagech ngi nibwe égi wdeméyan                  

No, I was standing outside smoking

A:  Hau, Mani ne gi wabma zagech ?                Oh, did you see Mani outside ?

B :  Cho weye ngi wabmasi zagech                    I didn’t see anyone outside

A:  Hau? Cho ne gi wabmasi o Mani?               Oh?  Didn’t you see Mani?

B: Cho she Mani ngi wabmasi, cho she weye ngi wabmasi zagech 

                        No, I really didn’t see Mani, I really didn’t see anyone outside

A:  Hau? Ni pi je éyéyet o Mani?                        Oh, where is Mani ?

Mani :  Hau, bozho                                                Oh, helllo

B :  Hau, gin negwne.                                            Oh, so it’s you

A :  Cho zagech ne gi zhyasi ?                              Didn’t you go outside ?

Mani :  Cho zagech ngi zhyasi.                            No, I didn’t go outside. 

            Ngi sakem.                                                   I went to the bathroom.

A: Gi yapjemaji o Mani ngi shedé’a gé nin     

I thought that Mary had left for                                                                         good/implication here is to run off.

Mani: Cho gi yapje majisi ngoji weye                          

No I didn’t run off anywhere.

           Zamjesh éshede’ayék gé ginwa ézhechkéyan shna

                        You people are thinking way too much of what I do.                                 

Participle Practice Phrases

Ni je pi wa wisnewat gi békdéjek?       

            When are those hungry ones going to eat?

Widmo gi badgéjek éwi madmoyan    

            Tell those who are going in I will pray for them

Ngi wabmak gi yayénojek ibe                

            I saw those ones who are laughing over there

Widmo o éjabdebet zagech ébidgét shote    

            Tell that one sitting outside to come in here

Nwi shema ode ébékdét             

            I’m going to feed this hungry one.

Ni pi je ézhyéwat gi wédmajek égi jibtebwat zagech?       

            Where did those smokers go who were sitting outside?

Gi jagé ne o égi wasnet?             

            Did that one who was eating consume everything ?

Kchemikchéwiwat gi gagénojek

            They are working hard those cookers

Kchemikchéwiwat gi kwék égigénowat          

            They are working hard those women who are cooking

Nenmo anet mijem o émajit                  

            Give some food to that one who is leaving

Widmo o shkenwé énébat odo pi énawkwék!         

            Tell that young man who is sleeping that it’s noon!

Wigézen gi gawséjek gishpen mtegwakik gwi zhya

            Watch out for those hunters if you go into the woods

Seksi gi nsa o égi gawsét             

            That one who was hunting killed a deer

Ngi wabmak gi bamséjek odanek         

            I saw those ones walking in town

Kyébadzik égishkwébyéwat gi ménkwéjek    

            They are naughty when they get drunk those drinkers

Mbusen wi neboswik gi gawéjek          

            Those who are going home are going by bus

Nin se égi bamsét ibe                               

            I am the one who was walking over there.

Gin se mteno éwasnet      or        Gin se mteno éwisneyen 

            You are the only one who is eating  or  You are the only one eating

Ginwa ne se égi wédmajek zagech?    

            Are you all the ones who were smoking outside ?

Nétawasnet o                                             

            He/she is the one who is always eating.

Wégwéndek ézhechkét o éjabdebet pené zhi.                     

            I wonder what he does that one who is always sitting there

Wégwéndek éshedé’at o éyayénot      

            I wonder what he is thinking that one who is laughing

Neshkama o ébambetot bidek  

            Get after/bawl out that one who is running inside

Ni pi je ézhyéwat gi majijek?                 

            Where are they going those that left?

Ni je enendemyek eje kendasyek ode seshmowen?

            What do ya all think of how you’re learning this language?

Ngot kedwen se  ije pi anake mjesh kedwenen?

            One word at a time or many words/phrases?

On understanding

Wne ste tan                                         He/she understands it

                                                            (what is being said)

Gne ste tan ne?                                    Do you understand it?

Wne stotwan                                       He/she understands him/her

Gne sto to ne?                                     Do you understand me?

Gne sto twa ne?                                   Do you understand him/her?

Gne sto twak ne?                                 Do you understand them?

Gne sto ta gwnan ne?                          Does he/she understand us?

Gne sto ta gwnanek ne?                      Do they understand us?

Jo gne ste tos non                                I don’t understand you.

Gne sto tan ne i?                                

Do you understand that?

Gne sto tam ne i?

            Do you people understand that?

Ahau, nse tem ok ode

            Ok, understand this!

Ne sto tan

            I understand!

Ne sto tamen

            We understand! (excl.)

Gne sto tamen

            We understand! (incl.)

Gne sto tamen ne?

            Do we understand? (incl.)

Jo, gne ste to snon

            I don’t understand you.

Gne sto twa ne?

            Do you understand him/her?

Gne sto towem ne?

            Do you people understand me?

Gne sto twen

            I understand you.

Nse ta gwse

            He/she is understandable!

Gne ste townem

            I understand you people.

Jo, gne ste to wso nem.

            I don’t understand you guys.

Gi gne ste tam ne ga wje yajmoawat gi kékyajek wnago

            Did you understand what those elders told the people yesterday?

Gne sto twam ne ga wje kedyan

            Do you all understand what I said?

Gne sto tam ne i nga ket?

            Do you people understand what I said?

Ahau, gse tem ok jayék éktot ode kewézi

            Ok, understand everything this old man says!


            Listen (all of you)

Ahau, bsetmok jayék éktowat gi nakéndemwajek mine gsetemok jayék i ézhyayen ibe émawjeshnowat gi neshnabék.

            Ok, listen (all of you) to everything these wise ones say to you all and understand all they say when you go over there where those Indians have gathered!

Bno wi pi égi penojéwiyak pené she gi yajmowat ibyé nebgeshmok gi kékyajek.

            Long ago when we were children always those elders spoke to us when evening came.

Bama she pi gwi byé na wat ni kenomagewnen bwamshe ebyat o gatikno.

            They will bring those teachings back before this spotted eagle returns!

Mano gwi zhe wébet mine!

            It will happen again!

Gwi gne sto twak jayék gin wa i byé zhe wébek i

            They will all understand when it happens!

Words for enrichment

Assorted words for vocabulary enrichment

Bonye wit – finished/es, he/she  (needs prefix)

Bon gizh – to finish s.t.

Gizh – finish.

Gizhi – finished.

Zhabshkan – h/s finishes, accomplishes s.t.

Bonshkat – h/s finished s.t.

Gizhita – to finish s.t.

Gizhitat – h/s finishes s.t.

Gizhtot – h/s finishes s.t.

Gizhton – to finish s.t.  (inan.)

Zheto – to make s.t.

Neto – to try s.t./try/attempt.

Shketo – to make an attempt.

Ewdadset – h/s who was born.

Gi wdaze – that one was born.

Egi nigyan – I was born.

Egi mashkayan – I flew.

Egi pabmashkayan – I flew all over or I flew all around.

Egi wdadsiyan – when I was born.

Egi nigyan – when I was born.

Kyendesen – hurry.

Wewendesen – hurry.

Wjandan kyenep – cook quickly s.t.  (inan.)

Zhishjegen/jigtegen – broom.

Also jishtegen – broom.

Zhibawaseya – transparent   (inan.)

Zhibawasezi – transparent   (anim.)

Zhabwatezigwa – ice (referring to the opaque quality)

Zhibawase mjedasnen – sheer stockings.

Zhabwate’egen mjedas – sheer nylon stocking.

Bkwakwet – ball.

Wizhgebkwakwet – hard ball.

Wagjaya bkwade – curve ball.

Nisaj bkwade – sinker ball.

Gzyeka bkwade – fast ball.

Nenjis bkwade – knuckle ball.

Bgeshnem bkwade – drop ball.

Azhtoge bkwade – change up ball.

Giwshkwe bkwade – corkscrew ball.

Bimskwem bkwade – corkscrew ball.

Gonaken bkwade – knuckle ball.

Medagwegwet I kigdowen – that’s an interesting subject.

Medagwegwet I – that’s interesting!

Emedagwegwat – they’re having an interesting time….

Mkedewkonye – priest or black robe.

Msenagkesget – secretary.

Msenazget – photographer.

Wzhobyewmsenazget – artist or painter.

Msenabiget – artist.

Various Neshnabe Games.

Mamkeznewen – moccasin game  (man’s game)

Bnekwe – woma’s bowl game.

Epeskewewen – another word for woman’s bowl game….

                              Associated with a form of lacrosse game with it….

Egsegkewat – they are playing the women’s dice game/bowl game.

Ksekenek – old style word for bowl and dice  (belonging to the women)

Epeski’a – another word for woman’s ball game.

Pegnegwen – Lacrosse.

Pagishenak – racket.

Sheshawinitjiken – cup and pin game.

Mzekwage – the icicle/could also be used to describe a fluttering bird,

usually an eagle, how they seem to hang in one spot while fluttering.

Nizgikdadwa – bother s.o.

Nizgakdadwat – bother each other.

Nizgikwat – they bother s.o.

Nnigiskwa – I bother s.o.

Nnizgikdadmen – we – you bother s.o.

Gnizgikdadmen – we + you bother s.o.

Mskogat – yarn belt.

Mskogaden – plural.

Meme – piliated woodpecker.

Memeyek – plural.

Mikjewitaget – work for s.o.  (people).

Anokagiget – a worker for hire.

Nokana – to hire s.o.

Nwi nokanage – I will hire s.o.

Pepij – once in awhile.

Mbish nwi wzan – I’m going to boil water.

Gwi ndo mbes – are you going to take a bath?

Neskwe – brush hair.

Gzi yabde – he/she brushes his/her teeth.

Nwi gzi yabde – I will brush my teeth.

Gzi yab deon – brush your teeth!

Ga bme je bgeshyen – where you camp.

Ga bme je bgeshyek – where you folks camp.

Ga bme je bgeshyan – where I camp.

Bakwiyangemek – tent.

Bebkoyangemek – cloth tent.

Nso’egan – wigwam/teepee, a tripod house….

referring to the tripod needed to support the dwellings they     used to make and cover with whatever…

negekgemek – bark house.

Shkwadem – door.

Gashkika’on – threshold.

Wasejgen – window. (literally, s.t. you can see light through).

Waskonenjegas – small lamp.

Waskonenjegen – light.

Nibwaskonenjegen – floor lamp.

Naken – rug.

Aneskewes – small throw rug.

Pegwen – mat, as in cat tail.

Beshmonkojgen – large rug.

Dopwen – table.

Jibtebwenen – chairs.

Jibtebwen – chair.

Pedyebwen – s.t. to sit on.

Pedyebwenen – plural.

Mbagen (en) – bed/beds.

Waboyan (en) – blanket/blankets.

Bakweshmowen (en) – pillow/pillows.

Wnagen (en) – dish/dishes.

Bdekjigen (en) – fork/forks.

Taswen – cupboard/closet.

Gzhabkezgen – stove.

Deschegen – shelf; also desk or a low table.

Atsek – room.

Datseknan – add a room.

Pakwan – roof.

Shpemsegen – ceiling.

Atsekwnegadek – a specific room.

Koman – knife.

Wagakoman – curved blade knife.

Zhadi – arrow.

Pekwe (yen) – arrow  (referring to the straight shaft of the arrow).

                        they were very straight, like the cat tails shafts….

Nwib – arrow  (referring to the sharpened projectile point).

Mtegwab – bow.

Megos – awl.

Jishkwajgen – scraper.

Megeshkan – hook.

Biwabkon – flint.

Biwabken – iron striker.

Shiwgnabek –  flint

Bodwe – make a fire.

Shkwede – fire.

Msen – firewood.

Biskean – split wood

Emkan (en) – spoon/spoons.

Mtegemkwan (en) – wooden spoon (s).

Kwabgen – cup or dipper.

Kwabegas – small cup or small dipper.

Mnekwajgen – s.t. to drink from, usually a cup.

Begwedemget – it is dry.

Begwedejgadek – dryer.

Ksinjegadek – washer.

Wnagenksinjegadek – dish washer.

Zhoshkwe’en – iron.

Zhoshkwe’an – to iron s.t.

Itsge – dye.

Itsgeke – to dye s.t.

Begwedege – drying s.t.

Gepisege – parching s.t.

Pegejis segat – threshing s.t.

Noshketon – winnowing.

Seshjegen – set the table.

Sesh che gen – another spelling.

Mneschegen – straighten things, put things in order.

Nazhikege – scrape, as in a hide.

Pshinge – to skin, as in an animal.

Jizhikwaige – scrape-stretch a hide.

Zhi shibwaige – stretch a hide over a frame.

Gazhko – shave or scrape off with a sharp knife.

Gazhke’a o – to scrape or shave s.o.

Penejegewen – persistense.

Awanjegewen – perserverance.

Zhiptem – stubborn.

Kwtegwe – stubborn.

Mishkwes – diligent.

Minwewes – hard working/enterprising.

Mamwe je pi – most of the time.

Odo pi – at this time.

Ode zhe pi – right now!

Iw pi – then.

Iw pi je – when.

Iw she pi – at that time.

Nanagech – often

Mjeshak – another often

Megwe pi – long time ago/or a long way off.

Mno wi pi – long time ago.

Ibe pi – over there.

Iw je pi – it was then.

Zhote zhi – over here.

Ezhi – over there.

Wesibe – way over there.

Wa gin negwne – oh, so it’s you!

Wi pe – to lay with s.o.

Ndo wi pe – to go lay with s.o.

Ndo wi pe ma’a o nde kweyom pkonyak – I will lye with my wife tonight.

Wi pe mesh – lye with me.

Moshkabwadan – add liquid to a pot or kettle.

Pabwe – add s.t. to soup or a pot.

Pabwewiyanabo – stew.

Nmoshkabwadan – I add liquid to a pot or kettle.

Kwech – yet!

Wasemajishkamowen – electricity.

Wasemowen – another form of electricity.

Shpemwnagendapnewen – satellite.

Bemisiwnagewen – another satellite.

Mawandonan – weld.

Mawandojege – welder.

Winkeshage – carver/one who carves.

Nnaikwat – to fix s.t.

Dabyankewnene – mechanic.

Wasemownene – electrician.

Psakwnemownene – another electrician.

Psakwnemowen – electricity.

Inanemowen – air/oxygen.

Nese – breathe.

Anemo – breathe.

Nemwin – breath





Anemowen – s.o.’s  breath.

Mbeknam – breathless.

A little lesson on negatives

Practice  with Negatives

Note:  Cho is often written as Jo.  They are the same thing, spelled different ways.

One shall find many different spellings of numerous words in Potawatomi if one studies the language long enough.

Practice your 7 Who’s:

Cho n  gi zhyasi

Cho (g) gi zhyasi

Cho gi zhyési

Cho n  gi zhyasimen

Cho (g) gi zhyasimen

Cho (g) gi zhyasim

Cho gi zhyésik

Cho n gi mnekwési

Cho (g) gi mnekwési

Cho gi mnekwési

Cho n gi mnekwésimen

Cho (g) gi mnekwésimen

Cho (g) gi mnekwésim

Cho gi mnekwésik

Cho n gi mikchéwisi

Cho (g) gi mikchéwisi

Cho gi mikchéwisi

Cho n gi mikchéwisimen

Cho (g) gi mikchéwisimen

Cho (g) gi mikchéwisim

Cho gi mikchéwisik

What’s the difference?

Cho n gi zhyasi ibe

Cho, n gi zhya ibe

Cho n gi mikchéwisi wnago                         

Cho, n gi mikchéwi wnago

Cho n wi mnekwési

Cho, n wi mnekwé

G gi giwsé ne?

Cho g gi giwsési ne?

G gi wjanda ne?

Cho g gi wjandasi ne?

G gi maji ne?

Cho g gi majisi ne?

Inanimate Transitives…

Cho n detosin i biskewagen

Cho n detosin i kwabegas

Cho n gi wzhetosin i mjegodé

Cho n gi bmowdosin i gokbenagen

Cho n gi nodasin i tetagen

Cho g detosin ne i biskewagen?

Cho g detosin ne i wiwkwan?

What’s the difference?

Cho ndetosin i

Cho, nde ton ngot ode

Cho gégo étoyan

Cho ngi tosin wnago

Cho nwi tosin wabek

Cho, ma shna nwi ton ngot wabek

Cho, ma shna étot ngot o Ruby

Animate Transitives…

Cho n gi wabmasi o mko

Cho n gi nodwasi o nene

Cho n gi gbashmasik gi penik

Cho n gi zaskokwanasik gi shegagoshek

Cho n gi kewabmasik gi penojék

Cho g gi wabmasi ne o kwé?

Cho g gi nodwasi ne o bnési?

What’s the difference…

Cho zabénma o

Cho ngi byénasi nnikan

Cho, ngi byéna o

Cho ngi wabmasi o

Cho, wnago ngi wabma

Cho ngi zaskokwanasik penyék

Cho, penyék ngi zaskokwanak

Other negatives…

Cho wi / Cho she = emphasized

Cho wika = never, or really emphasized

Chomshe = not yet

Chomamda = not possible

Cho weye = no one

Cho ngoji = nowhere

Cho gégo = nothing

Cho she n gi zhyasi ibe

Cho wi she n gi zhyasi ibe

Chomshe n gi zhyasi ibe

Chomshe dawéwgemek n gi zhyasi

Chomshe n gi wéwébtasimen

Chomshe n gi bidgésimen

Chomshe n gi gbashmasik gi penik

Chomshe n gi gishpnedosin i dabyan

Chomshe n gi pe’egwadosin i mjegodé

Chomamda n wi gishpnedosin i dabyan

Chomamda n wi gbatosin ode mbop

Chomamda n wi gapikési

Chomamda g wi wéwébtasimen

Chomamda g wi bidgésimen

Chomamda g wi nim’edisimen

Chomamda n wi giwsési ngom

Cho weye gi zhyési ibe.

Cho weye gi nim’edisi

Cho weye gi mnekwési

Cho weye gi mikchéwisi shote

Cho weye gi wjandasin gégo

Cho weye gi wisnesin gégo

Cho weye gi bmosési shote

Cho ngoji n gi zhyasi

Cho ngoji gi chikazsik

Cho ngoji gi giwsési weye

Cho ngoji n gi nim’edisimen

Cho ngoji n gi mnekwésimen

Cho ngoji n gi gishkwébyésimen

Cho ngoji n gi kyébadsimen

Cho ngoji wi ksenyasi wabek

Cho gégo n gi gishpnedosin

Cho gégo ndestotosin

Cho gégo n gi wisnesin

Cho gégo n gi gbatosin

Cho gégo n gi wabdasin

Cho gégo n gi wabdasimen

Cho gégo n gi nodasimen

Something on possessives

Inalienable Possession

Understanding possession requires knowledge of the personal pronouns and their corresponding prefixes and suffixes.  In Bodewadmimwen, body parts and relatives fall into a special class of nouns that are considered “inalienably” possessed.  This means that to be grammatically correct, you cannot just have a Foot or a Mother; you have to specify whose foot or whose mother it is.  Body parts and relatives are considered “Dependent” nouns.

Nkat               My leg                                   Ngyé              My mother

Gkat               Your leg                                 Ggyé              Your mother

Wkaten         His/her leg                            Wgyéyen      His/her mother

{Nkatmenan Our leg (not yours)            Ngyénan       Our mother (not yours)

Gkatmenan Our leg (+you)                     Ggyénan       Our mother (+you)

Gkatmewa   Your leg (pl.)                        Ggyéwa         Your mother (pl.)

Wkatmewa  Their leg}                              Wgyéwan     Their mother

The pattern looks slightly different when the noun is plural.  Remember, body parts are inanimate, while relatives are animate:

Ntogen                      My ears                     Nmeshomsek          My grandfathers

Gtogen                      Your ears                  Gmeshomsek          Your grandfathers

Wtognen                  His/her ears             Wmeshomsen         H/h grandfathers

Ntogmenanen        Our ears (-you)       Nmeshomsenanek Our grandfathers-

Gtogmenanen        Our ears (+you)      Gmeshomsenanek Our grandfathers+

Gtogmewan            Your ears (pl.)         Gmeshomsewak    Your grandfathers

Wtogmewan           Their ears                 Wmeshomsewan   Their grandfathers

Here are some commonly used terms for relatives and friends.  Note that some terms are only used by men, while some terms are only used by women.

My maternal aunt  Noshé                        My nephew             Negwenes

My paternal aunt   Nshegwes                 My niece                   Nzhemes

My cousin                 Nitawes                     My parents              Ngetsimek

My daughter           Ndanes                      My younger sibling   Nshimé

My son                      Ngwes                       My brother (men)  Nnikan[1]

My grandmother   N’okmes                   My daughter in law  Ne’agnekwé

My child                    Nijanes                      My sister (women) Nidgeko

My grandchild         Nosés                         My sister (men)      Ndekwem

My uncle                   Nzheshé                    My son in law          Ne’angesh

My elder brother of male            Nsezé

My elder brother of female         Ndewéma

My brother in law of female       Nita

My brother in law of male           Niji

My elder sister of male                 Nmesé

My sister in law of male               Ninem

Family ties were of utmost importance to the old time Bodéwadmik, and relationships were very specific.  Many relationships had special places of honor in society.  For example, it was customary for a son-in-law to avoid speaking directly to his mother-in-law out of absolute respect for her. 

Here are some commonly used body parts.

My ear                       Ntog                           My ears                     Ntogen

My nose                    Njash

My eye                      Nshkishek                 My eyes                    Nshkishgwen

My throat                 Ngotaken                 

My mouth                Ndon

My chin                     Ndamken

My arm                     Nnek                          My arms                   Nnekén

My hand                   Nej/Nenji                  My hands                 Nenjin

My leg                       Nkat                           My legs                      Nkatén

My foot                     Nzet                           My feet                     Nzetén

My finger                  Nenjis                        My fingers                Nenjisen

My toe                       Nzetés                       My toes                     Nzetésen

My shoulder            Ndenmagen             My shoulders          Ndenmagnen

My head                   Nshtegwan              

Top of my head       Ndep

My hair                     Nwinsesén

My forehead           Ngeték

My back                    Npegwen

My tooth                  Nibet                          My teeth                   Nibden         

Boswnekayen          armpit

Alienable Possession

Objects that can be removed from a possessor are considered “Alienable.”  This means that the noun in question can be given away.  Nouns that fall into this category are considered “Independent” nouns.  Possession of this sort is shown as follows:

Inanimate Objects:

Nkomanem             My knife                               Nkomanen               My knives

Gkomanem              Your knife                             Gkomanen               Your knives

Wkomanem            His/her knife                        Wkomanen              His/her knives

Nkomanmenan      Our knife (not yours)        Nkomanmenanen  Our knives

Gkomanmenan      Our knife (yours too)        Gkomanmenanen  Our knives

Gkomanmewa        Your knife (pl.)                    Gkomanmewan      Your knives

Wkomanmewa       Their knife                            Wkomanmewan    Their knives

Animate Objects:

Ngazhoyem             My cat                                   Ngazhomek             My cats

Ggazhoyem             Your cat                                 Ggazhomek             Your cats

Wgazhomen            His/her cat                           Wgazhomen            His/her cats

Ngazhomenan        Our cat (not yours)            Ngazhomenanek    Our cats

Ggazhomenan        Our cat (yours too)            Ggazhomenanek    Our cats

Ggazhomewa          Your cat (pl.)                        Ggazhomewak        Your cats

Wgazhomewan      Their cat                                Wgazhomewan      Their cats

There are other ways to show possession of this type:

            Ndo komanem                                My knife

            Nin ma ode koman                        This is my knife (emphatic)

            Nin ndebendan ode koman        I own this knife

            Nin ma o nemosh                           That is my dog (emphatic)

            Nin ndebenma o nemosh            I own that dog

Gdo koman                                      Your knife

            Gin ma ode koman                        This is your knife (emphatic)

            Gin gdebendan ode koman         You own this knife

            Ndo komanmenan                         Our knife

            Ndo komanmenanen                    Our knives

            Ninan ndebendamen ode koman          We own this knife

            Gdo komanmenan                         Our knife

            Gdo komanmenanen                    Our knives

            Ginan ndebendamen node komanen   We own these knives       

Some special Possessive words:

Nda’i                          My pet dog

            Ndokyan                   My pet cat (can be used for other small animals)

            Ndéygwam              My pet horse

                                                Proximate                             Obviative


Nemosh        O Nemosh                            Ni Nemoshen

Bnéshi                        O Bnéshi                               Ni Bnéshiyen


Nemosh                    Gi Nemoshek                       Ni Nemoshen

Bnéshi                        Gi Bnéshiyek                        Ni Bnéshiyen

This does NOT mean the dog and the bird have become inanimate.  What they have become is 4th Person.

Nin/Ninan/Ginan = 1st Person

Gin/Ginwa = 2nd Person

Win/Winwa = 3rd Person

Nemosh wabman ni bnéshiyen

            The dog sees the bird (s)

                        Nemosh – 3rd Person        

                                    ni bnéshiyen – 4th person

He, pegdoshen i n(do)pkwakwetem

Ni pi je étémget i n(do)shkemotem?

Dopwenek éték i g(do)shkemotem

I yé i n(do)waboyanmenan!

I yé ni n(do)waboyanmenanen!

Hau, mnéschegén ni gchikaswenen!

Ni pi je étoyék ni gdabyanmewan?

Gégo toyék ni gdabyanmewan ibe!

Gishpen étoyék ni gdabyanmewan ibe égwan o mshenkiwnene wa je pamsét éwabdet ni gdabyanmewan ibe éwi mbyégét ni msenegasnen!

Wabek nwi shema o n(de)nemoyem.

Wabek nwi shemamen o n(de)nemomenan.

Wabek nwi shema o n’okmes wnemomen.

Wabek nwi shemak gi n(de)nemomek.

Wabek nwi shemamen gi n(de)nemomenanek.

Wabek nwi shema o ngétsimnek wnemomewan.

Ni pi je ék’kezot o gmeshomsewa wgazhomen?

Nemetsena éyéyet ni wgazhomen.  Cho ngi wabmasi o!

[1] Nikan is also used for “My friend.”