Giving and Receiving
The verb root for both Giving and Receiving is “Min.” The way it is formed determines who is giving and who is getting.
- The animate actors are expressed by the verb. In other words, the person who gives the gift is grammatically more important than the gift itself.
- Different verb endings determine which way the giving is going.
- 2nd person is preferred: You are more important than Me, and this is expressed grammatically by putting 2nd person in front of the verb.
Giving to a 3rd person:
Ngi mina ode nebyégen o Jigwékwé – I gave the pen to Jigwekwe
Ngi minak ode nebyégen gi nenwik éjibdebwat ibe – I gave the pen to the men sitting over there
*The verb is determined by the people, not the gift.
Ngi mina Nin to win Ngi minak nin to winwa
Ggi mina Gin to win Ggi minak gin to winwa
Wgi minan Win to 4 Wgi minan win to 4
Ngi minamen Ninan to win Ngi minamen ninan to winwa
Ggi minamen Ginan to win Ggi minamen ginan to winwa
Ggi minawa Ginwa to win Ggi minawak ginwa to winwa
Wgi minawan Winwa to 4 Wgi minawan winwa to 4
Receiving from a 3rd person:
Ngi minek ode nebyégen o Jigwékwé – I got this pen from Jigwekwe
Ngi mingok ode nebyégen gi nenwik éjibdebwat ibe – I got this pen from those men sitting over there
*Now the verb is reversed.
Ngi minek win to nin Ngi mingok winwa to nin
Ggi minek win to gin Ggi mingok winwa to gin
Wgi mingon 4 to win Wgi mingon 4 to winwa
Ngi mingonan win to ninan Ngi mingonanek winwa to ninan
Ggi mingonan win to ginan Ggi mingonanek winwa to ginan
Ggi mingowa win to ginwa Ggi mingowak winwa to ginwa
Wgi mingowan 4+ to win Wgi mingowan 4+ to winwa
Then it gets complicated. Now you have to remember that YOU is grammatically more important than ME, and the most important thing comes first.
Ggi mish Gin to Nin You gave it to me
Ggi minen Nin to Gin I gave it to you
Ggi mishyémen Gin to ninan You gave it to us
Ggi minenmen Ninan to gin We gave it to you
Ggi mishyem Ginwa to nin Y’all gave it to me
Ggi minenem Nin to Ginwa I gave it to y’all
Ggi minem Nin to Ginwa I gave it to y’all
Ggi mishyémen Ginwa to ninan Y’all gave it to us
Ggi minmenem Ninan to ginwa We gave it to y’all
Ggi minenmen Ninan to ginwa We gave it to y’all