Verbs, verbs and more verbs

A List of Common Action Verbs

  1. Zhechké                       To Do
  2. Giwé                            To Go Home
  3. Giwsé                          To Hunt
  4. Ktege                           To plant  (h/s plants)
  5. Bidgé                           To Enter
  6. Zagjesé                        To Go Outside
  7. Mnekwé                      To Drink
  8. Wanké                         To Dig
  9. Wénkwéngé                To Drive
  10. Zgabyenge                  To steer, to drive
  11. Binjegé                        To Clean
  12. Gwdemojgé                 To Fish
  13. Déwé’gé                      To Drum
  14. Gemo                          To sing  (h/s sings)
  15. Bmadgé                       To Swim
  16. Minké                          To Gather Berries
  17. Biskonyé                      To Get Dressed
  18. Giskonye                      To get undressed
  19. Kewabnoje                  To watch children  (babysitting)
  20. Gzhadawso                  Another babysitting
  21. Migadi                         To Fight
  22. Mikchéwi                    To Work
  23. Anoki                           To work for hire
  24. Maji                             To Leave/Go
  25. Bsegwi                         To Get Up/Rise
  26. Nim’edi                       To Dance
  27. Chikaso                        To Play
  28. Bkeso                           To Bathe/to swim  (h/s bathes0
  29. Kedo                            To Say
  30. Neshnabémo               To Speak Indian Language
  31. Zhya/zhye                   To Go
  32. Bya/bye                       To Come/Arrive
  33. Wdema                       To Smoke
  34. Wdeme                       Another way to say to smoke
  35. Wisne                          To Eat
  36. Jibtebe                         To Sit
  37. Nibwe                          To Stand
  38. Bose                            To Ride
  39. Ye                                To be in a certain place
  40. Yawe                           State of being  (h/s is)
  41. Mzhena                       To seize, lay hold of
  42. Mawdo                        To gather
  43. Pkebna                        To pick, to reach up
  44. Dapna                          To pick, to reach down
  45. Dkobjege                     To close a circle, to end things
  46. Debnek                        Reach for s.t.
  47. Bgedna                        To put down s.t., to lay s.t. down
  48. Mdomneke                  To bead
  49. Gokpenage                  To make baskets
  50. Zisbakdoke                  To make sugar
  51. Msenagseke                To go to the movies, to make pictures
  52. Wjanda                        To cook
  53. Gigeno                         To cook
  54. Bmose                         To walk
  55. Bmepto                       To run
  56. Tkemse                        To cross over
  57. Bebamse                     To walk around, to walk about
  58. Zhonyamke                 To have money
  59. Odanke                        To shop, to go to town
  60. Msenege                     To charge things, as in credit
  61. We’e, We’uh               To loan, to give credit
  62. Dbege                          To pay s.t.
  63. Dawe                           To buy and sell
  64. Gishnena                     To buy as in commercial buying
  65. Gishpnedo                   To buy, to shop
  66. Kigdo                           To speak, talk
  67. Nendek                        To think a certain way
  68. Nenmat                       To think a certain way about s.o.
  69. Nendem                      To think
  70. Nagdewenmat             To think of s.o.
  71. Nagdewendek             To think of s.t.
  72. Gchenenmat               To think a lot of s.o.
  73. Mba/mbe                    To sleep
  74. Nweshmo                    To rest
  75. Ensestek                      To understand
  76. Enseto                         To reason
  77. Nbwaka                       To reason
  78. Bsegwi                         To rise
  79. Doki                             To awake
  80. Bkezo                           To bathe, shower
  81. Gzinge                         To wash up
  82. Binchege                     To clean
  83. Binakchege                 To clean
  84. Wawida                       To read
  85. Wawijge                      To read
  86. Wab                             To see
  87. Wabma                       To see s.o.
  88. Wabdan                       To see s.t.
  89. Mina                            To give
  90. Mingo                          To receive
  91. Shema                         To feed
  92. Shemgo                       To be fed
  93. Gzinwnage                  To wash dishes
  94. Bgedna                        To allow s.o. to do s.t.
  95. Bgednon                      To allow s.t.
  96. Binakwe’o                   To comb hair
  97. Gziyabde’o                  To brush teeth
  98. Mneschege                 To put things in order, housework
  99. Doma                          To call s.o.

All the little words

Most used words in Bodwe’wadmimwen


Wi                                            future (will or want to)

Ke/ge                                       future (not as strong)

Ta/da                                       future (can, should, could)

Ki/gi                                         past (have or did)

Ki/gi gish                                 past already

Wa                                           future (subordinate form)

Ga                                            past (subordinate form)

Da gi                                        should have

É                                              immediate future intent

Particles, by category.


Jo                                             no, not

Jo wi                                        not (emphatic)

Jo mamda                               not possible

Jo wika                                    never

Jo weye                                   no one

Jo gégo                                    nothing, zero

Jo mshe                                   not yet

Jo ngoji                                    nowhere

Gégo                                        don’t


Éhé                                          yes (northern)

Konegé                                    yes (southern)


Mégwa                                    still

Mojma                                    irregardless, anyway

Mamkach                                have to

Gimoch                                    secretly

Néyap                                      back, same

Nanbén                                    too late

Nawech                                   at the same time

Gégpi                                       finally, at last

Ayapen                                    the same

Abje                                         very

Abdég                                      have to, be necessary that

Neko                                        used to

Iw yédeg                                  must be

Gnebej                                     maybe

Bama                                       later, wait

Bama pi                                   later on

Débnag                                    carelessly

Égaj                                         take it easy, slow down

Éshkem                                    harder, more intense

Gaga                                        almost, soon

Gawa                                       hardly, scarcely

Gnewésh                                 for a long time

Kyénep                                    hurry up, go quickly

Nangodgen                              sometimes, once in awhile

Pi                                             unit of time

Mamkaj                                   have to

Mamey                                    early, soon

Mano                                       let him/her, anyway, its all right                               


Ibe                                           there

Ézhi                                          over there

Shote                                       here

Bijbyék                                    in the water

Bijigwan                                  inside something

Giwta yégwan                         around something

Jigakwa                                   at the edge of the woods

Jigatek                                     by trees

Jigbyék                                    by the water, on shore

Kwedbyék                                on the water

Kwejbyék                                 on top of the water

Nambyék                                 under the water

Namkemek                              under the ground

Namsek                                   in the basement, under the floor

Nanaw yégwan                       in the middle of it

Nbené yégwan                        on one side of something

Nekmek                                   everywhere, different places

Ngoji                                        anywhere, somewhere

Pemé yégwan                         on the side of something

Shkwé yégwan                        at the end, the last

Shpemek                                 above, in the air. Heaven

Shpemsegok                            somewhere up above

Zagje yégwan                          outside of it

Zhiw, zhi                                  there


Bbon, pon                                year


Dwe                                         kind, sort

Gégo                                        something, anything (inanimate)

Jak gégo                                  everything

Jo gégo                                    none, nothing (inanimate)

Jo weye                                   no one, nobody

Mje gégo                                 trouble, bad thing

Weye                                       someone, somebody, something (animate)

Wégwdegwén                         whatever, I wonder what (inanimate dubitative)

Wégwdegwéndek                   whatever, I wonder what (inanimate dubitative)

Wégwén                                  whoever, someone, something (animate     interrogative)


Bbonog, ponog                        last winter

Dgwagog                                 last fall

Égme-bbon, égme-pon           every winter

Égme-gishek                           every day

Égme-niben                             every summer

Égme-waben                           every morning, every dawn

Gaggé                                      forever. implying eternal

Gizes                                        month

Keshéb                                     early in the morning

Kewé                                       first

Shkweyégwan                         last


Aizhok                                      back and forth

Aidwegmeg                             on both sides of the house

Aidwe-yégwan                        on both sides

Azhwe-yégwan                        on the other side, beyond

Azhokne                                   across the road

Azhodaki, azhodakig               over the hill

Azhogmeg                               behind the house

Azho-odan                               across town

Azhwekwe                               beyond the woods

Azhegamdés                            on the other side of the room

Azhweseg                                in the next room

Béshoj                                     close

Bijigwan                                  inside of something

Bideg                                       indoors

Bke-yégwan                            off to the side

Bnoj                                         far away

Gojeg                                       outdoors

Jigateg                                     by trees

Jiggemeg                                 near a house or lodge

Jigigwan                                  near here

Jig-mbes                                  next to the lake

Jig-myéw                                 next to the road

Jig-odaneg                               near town

Jig-shkwedé                             by the fire

Jig-zibe                                    next to the river

Kwédagon                               on top of the snow

Kwédajwen                              upstream

Kwedaki                                   uphill

Kwédbeg                                 on the roof

Kwédbyég or kwéjbyég           on the water

Kwéjgemeg or kwédgemeg    on top of a house

Kwéjigwan                               on top

Mchig                                      in the open, on the ground


Énwég                                     better

Anwe                                       all right, okay

anasab, nasab                         the same

Ashteg                                     next, in turn

Babkan                                    all different

Bkan                                        different

Nsheké                                    alone

Wzam                                      too much

Nwéch                                     more

Weshmé                                  more

Neshna                                    any old way

Dédénewé                               of ones’ own, in a close relationship

Géte                                        surely


Anet                                         some or part

Mine anet                                some more

Mine ngot                                another

Mjésh                                      many, a lot

Ne ish                                      both

Ayanet                                     some of each

Jag, jak                                    all

Jayég                                       all

Abte                                         half

Bgéji                                        a little

Jag gégo                                  all, everything

Jag weye                                  everyone

Mamwé                                   together, in all, in total

Dso                                          a certain number, a certain amount, so many, so much


Dbégas                                    an inch

Dbégen                                    hour, yard, mile, a large measurement

Abte                                         half

Abtoshkas                                twenty five pound bag

Abtoshken                               fifty pound bag

Gishkbojgen                            bushel

Ngot-gishkbojgen                    one bushel

Modey                                     gallon

Ngodokek                                one painful

Ngodoshkas                             one little sackful

Ngodoshken                            one sack, one sackful

Ngodwabyék                           one piece

Ngodwadswabyék                   six pieces

Ngodwéwan                            one pair, one set

Ngod dégas                             one minute

Ngod dbégen                           one mile

Ngod gizes                               one month

Ngod kiwés                              one acre

Ngod kwénamwas                   one second

Ngod nemégizhek                   one week

Ngod zet                                  one foot

Nswabyék                                three pieces

Nizhwéwan                              two pairs, two sets

Nsek                                        three times

Nyanek                                    five times

Nyano bbon                             five years

Nyano dbégas                         five minutes

Nyano dbégen                         five hours

Nyano gizes                             five months

Nyano kwénamwasek             five seconds

Nyano nemégizhek                 five weeks

Nyanogwen                             five days

Nyanwabyék                            five pieces

Nye’w dbégen                         four hours

Nye’wabyék                             four pieces

Nyéwek                                   four times

Nyéwgon                                 four days


Éko-nisheg                               the second


I gwien, I gwshe gwiyen          thank you (southern)

Migwéch                                 thank you (northern)

Mojma                                    please

Gazha                                      please

Wéwéne                                  thank you, it is right, proper


Weye                                       someone

Gégo                                        something

Ngoji                                        someplace


Ne                                            (indicates a yes/no question)

Wéni je                                    who

Wéni                                        who?

Wégni je                                  what

Wégni                                      what?

Ni je                                         how—-why

Ni je na                                    how are you

Ni pi je                                     where, where?

Ni pi                                         where?

Ni je wpi/ni jo pi                      when, when?

Ni wpi                                      when?

Ni je wi                                    why, why?

Ni je dso                                  how much, how many?

Wa?                                         Huh?, what?


Se (se wi, se wi zhe)               

Iw pi                                        that’s when

Iw dso                                      that’s how much

Yé                                            that’s it (used with iw, niw, etc., for example)

I ye’ I                                        “that’s it!”


Migwéch                                 thanks (Northern)

Wéwéne                                  thanks (Southern, Pokagon Band)

Bozho                                      hello (accompanied by a handshake)

Ahaw                                       okay (in agreement)

Na                                            emphatic

Zhena                                      emphatic

Zhe                                          emphatic

Gwshe                                     emphatic (possibly means “obviously”)

Iw je                                        and then

Wi                                            empahtic


Mine                                        and

Je                                             but, and

Iw je                                        and then

Gé                                            too, also

Je wi zhe                                  but

Wi zhe                                     but

Anaké                                      either, or

Gishpen                                   if

Ma                                           but

Ma wi                                      but (ma used with emphatic wi)


Haw, hau                                 well, so

Ahaw, ahau                             okay, (in agreement)

Hé                                            hey, so!

Iyo                                           hey! Ouch!

Kwansegkemeg                       terrible! (women use) amazing, surprising

Mamkadkemeg                       terrible! (women use) amazing, surprising

Téya, wa téya                          my gosh! (men use)


Bégesh, bégesh na                  wish that

Iw je pi                                     then

Bgosénjegé                             hope for s.t.

Bedo                                        to hope for/to wish for

Dodaské                                  beseech, ask with great imploring


The essence of prayer(s).

PRAYER is an essential part of life.  It is also a way of communicating with the powers of this world and the next.  Communication with the unseen is an essential thing for all of us.  It is the stuff of faith, what faith is built on, it creates trust between God and man.

Prayer must be spontaneous, coming from deep within, not memorized, but allowed to flow freely from the heart.  This is why one’s natural language, like Potawatomi, plays such an important part in that communication.  When one speaks to the universe and all that is contained therein, in one’s native language, it can be said that all of heaven listens and responds.

Prayers would follow a format –

                Acknowledgement of Mamogosnan

Various names of same

                Acknowledgement of powers     (13 powers)

                Recognition of :





                Recognition of Grandmother Earth, Mother Earth, Daughter Earth

                The world and all of its plant life;

                All animals

                Weather and its many conditions

                Being thankful for all things

Morning Prayers

Evening Prayers

Prayer for Food

Prayers for the Sick

Traveling Prayers

Ceremonial Prayers

Altar Prayers

Water Prayers

Prayers for all of life

                Two Legged        and                        Fire

                Four Legged       and                        Rock

                Creeping Crawling Things   and   Water

                Winged Nations     and                   Green

Planting Prayers

Harvest Prayers

Prayers for Harvesting Medicine

                Songs were sung – Songs are Prayers

Universe Songs




                                                                Other Planets/Stars

Special Ceremonial Songs

                Doctoring Songs

                Calling Songs

                Appearing Songs

                Demonstration Songs

                Honor Songs

                Medicine Songs

                Thank You Songs

                Acknowledgement Songs

                Departing Songs

Fasting Songs

Many other types of songs went along with Prayers

Each animal                                                                                                                       

Each plant                                                                                                           Had songs.

Each bird

Eternal Past                                                                                                        Death Songs

Eternal Present                                                                                                 Funerary Songs

Eternal future

On possessives

Inalienable Possession

Understanding possession requires knowledge of the personal pronouns and their corresponding prefixes and suffixes.  In Bodewadmimwen, body parts and relatives fall into a special class of nouns that are considered “inalienably” possessed.  This means that to be grammatically correct, you cannot just have a Foot or a Mother; you have to specify whose foot or whose mother it is.  Body parts and relatives are considered “Dependent” nouns.

Nkat                My leg                                     Ngyé                My mother

Gkat                Your leg                                   Ggyé                Your mother

Wkaten           His/her leg                              Wgyéyen        His/her mother

Nkatmenan     Our leg (not yours)                  Ngyénan         Our mother (not yours)

Gkatmenan    Our leg (+you)                         Ggyénan         Our mother (+you)

Gkatmewa      Your leg (pl.)                           Ggyéwa           Your mother (pl.)

Wkatmewa     Their leg                                  Wgyéwan       Their mother

The pattern looks slightly different when the noun is plural.  Remember, body parts are inanimate, while relatives are animate:

Ntogen                        My ears                       Nmeshomsek              My grandfather

Gtogen                        Your ears                     Gmeshomsek              Your grandfather

Wtognen                     His/her ears                Wmeshomsen His/her grandfather

Ntogmenanen             Our ears (-you)            Nmeshomsenanek     Our grandfather (-)

Gtogmenanen             Our ears (+you)           Gmeshomsenanek      Our grandfather (+)

Gtogmewan                Your ears (pl.)             Gmeshomsewak         Your grandfather (pl)

Wtogmewan               Their ears                    Wmeshomsewan        Their grandfather

Here are some commonly used terms for relatives and friends.  Note that some terms are only used by men, while some terms are only used by women.

My maternal aunt       Noshé                          My nephew                 Negwenes

My paternal aunt        Nshegwes                    My niece                     Nzhemes

My cousin                    Nitawes                       My parents                  Ngetsimek

My daughter               Ndanes                        My younger sibling     Nshimé

My son                        Ngwes                         My brother (men)       Nnikan[1]

My grandmother        N’okmes                      My daughter in law     Ne’agnekwé

My child                      Nijanes                        My sister (women)      Nidgeko

My grandchild             Nosés                           My sister (men)           Ndekwem

My uncle                     Nzheshé                       My son in law              Ne’angesh

My elder brother of male                   Nsezé

My elder brother of female                Ndewéma

My brother in law of female              Nita

My brother in law of male                  Niji

My elder sister of male                       Nmesé

My sister in law of male                     Ninem

Family ties were of utmost importance to the old time Bodéwadmik, and relationships were very specific.  Many relationships had special places of honor in society.  For example, it was customary for a son-in-law to avoid speaking directly to his mother-in-law out of absolute respect for her. 

Here are some commonly used body parts.

My ear                        Ntog                            My ears                       Ntogen

My nose                      Njash

My eye                        Nshkishek                    My eyes                       Nshkishgwen

My throat                    Ngotaken                    

My mouth                   Ndon

My chin                       Ndamken

My arm                       Nnek                            My arms                      Nnekén

My hand                      Nej/Nenji                     My hands                    Nenjin

My leg                         Nkat                             My legs                       Nkatén

My foot                       Nzet                             My feet                       Nzetén

My finger                    Nenjis                          My fingers                   Nenjisen

My toe                         Nzetés                         My toes                       Nzetésen

My shoulder                Ndenmagen                My shoulders              Ndenmagnen

My head                      Nshtegwan                 

Top of my head           Ndep

My hair                       Nwinsesén

My forehead               Ngeték

My back                      Npegwen

My tooth                     Nibet                           My teeth                     Nibden

Alienable Possession

Objects that can be removed from a possessor are considered “Alienable.”  This means that the noun in question can be given away.  Nouns that fall into this category are considered “Independent” nouns.  Possession of this sort is shown as follows:

Inanimate Objects:

Nkomanem                 My knife                                  Nkomanen                   My knives

Gkomanem                 Your knife                                Gkomanen                   Your knives

Wkomanem                His/her knife                           Wkomanen                  His/her knives

Nkomanmenan           Our knife (not yours)              Nkomanmenanen       Our knives

Gkomanmenan           Our knife (yours too)               Gkomanmenanen       Our knives

Gkomanmewa Your knife (pl.)                                    Gkomanmewan           Your knives

Wkomanmewa           Their knife                               Wkomanmewan          Their knives

Animate Objects:

Ngazhoyem                 My cat                                     Ngazhomek                 My cats

Ggazhoyem                 Your cat                                   Ggazhomek                 Your cats

Wgazhomen                His/her cat                              Wgazhomen                His/her cats

Ngazhomenan Our cat (not yours)                              Ngazhomenanek         Our cats

Ggazhomenan Our cat (yours too)                              Ggazhomenanek         Our cats

Ggazhomewa              Your cat (pl.)                           Ggazhomewak Your cats

Wgazhomewan           Their cat                                  Wgazhomewan           Their cats

There are other ways to show possession of this type:

            Ndo komanem                                    My knife

            Nin ma ode koman                              This is my knife (emphatic)

            Nin ndebendan ode koman                I own this knife

            Nin ma o nemosh                                That is my dog (emphatic)

            Nin ndebenma o nemosh                   I own that dog

Gdo koman                                         Your knife

            Gin ma ode koman                              This is your knife (emphatic)

            Gin gdebendan ode koman                You own this knife

            Ndo komanmenan                              Our knife

            Ndo komanmenanen                          Our knives

            Ninan ndebendamen ode koman       We own this knife

            Gdo komanmenan                              Our knife

            Gdo komanmenanen                          Our knives

            Ginan ndebendamen node komanen We own these knives 

Some special Possessive words:

Nda’i                            My pet dog

            Ndokyan                      My pet cat (can be used for other small animals)

            Ndéygwam                  My pet horse

[1] Nikan is also used for “My friend.”

This from a dear friend

“When I first started, when I first started to understand the four directions, I say, ‘Hey Waabanong (East), hey Zhaawanong (South), hey Ningaabii’an (West), hey Giiwedin (North).’ Man I was a holy man. I was a very traditional person because I knew the four directions. And then the old people started talking to me, bizindan (Listen to it). That was one of the first things, bizindan. “And I really didn’t know what they were talking about. But they just kept saying, bizindan; bizindan. Finally, I understood what that meant. I started to listen. I started to listen to things out there in nature. And it seems like the things I was hearing out there, were happening simultaneously inside. And that is where our spirit is, where our language is. It’s still in us. It’s in all of us.”Forget about how to say plastic in Ojibwe. Because what does that mean anyway? Quit trying to say kangaroo. This is what your heart is talking about, because it talks to us all the time. We need to get to that place where we can be quiet. And that could be anywhere. It’s different for each of us. Some like it by the water, or by the rocks, some go out into the woods. How many here go to Walmart? Get a spiritual awakening at Walmart. Ha, good sale! ~Gichi-Ma’iingan (Big Wolf) ROAD TO PONEMAH: The Teachings of Larry Stillday, by Michael Meuers

This is a good read……

Nin se Neaseno.

A simple prayer

“Grandfather, Great Spirit, once more behold me on earth and lean to hear my feeble voice. You lived first, and you are older than all need, older than all prayer. All things belong to you — the two-legged, the four-legged, the wings of the air, and all green things that live.

“You have set the powers of the four quarters of the earth to cross each other. You have made me cross the good road and road of difficulties, and where they cross, the place is holy. Day in, day out, forevermore, you are the life of things.”

Aho Mesho Geshemnedo, ngotek mine wabmeshen ebmadziyan shote se aki mine yajshen ebsedweyen ode ekedyan. Gin netem gebmadziyen mine epitziyen se ode mnézewen, mine epitziyen ode madmowen. Jayek nde bendagzem—gode nizho kadejek, mine gode nyewo kadejek, mine gi ebmashiwat, mine jayek ode skebgyewnen edneswat ebmadzewat.

Gin se etoyen mnedowen se ni nyewo we’ji igwanen ode se Aki azhopkanawan. Gin se she azhodakeyan ode wewene myewen mine i snegewmyewen, mine ashopkanawat, iw se she epij mnedowen. Pene she egagiwen, mine epij ebmadzhetoyen jayek bkan bmadzewen.

Iw enajmoyan.

Participles, not particles.


In Bodéwadmimwen, a participle is a way of saying “The one who _______________.”  This is done by altering the verb just slightly.  Some verbs are simple, you just add a “t” to the end.  Other verbs alter slightly

                                                            Singular                       Plural

The one who leaves                            Majit                           Majijek

The one who dances                           Namedit                      Namediwjek

The one who enters                            Badgét                         Badgéjek

The one who goes home                    Gawét                          Gawéwjek

The one who hunts                             Gawsét                        Gawséjek

The one who gets up                          Bsegwit                       Bsegwijek

The one who smokes                          Wédmat                      Wédmajek

The one who eats                               Wasnet                        Wasnejek

The one who drinks                            Ménkwét                     Ménkwéjek

The one who fights                             Migadit                       Migadiwjek

The one who cleans                            Binjegét                       Binjegéjek

The one who stands                            Nibwet                         Nibwejek

The one who rides                              Boset                           Bosejek

The one who gets dressed                  Biskonyét                     Biskonyéjek

The one who works                             Mikchéwit                   Mikchéwiwjek

The one who drums                            Déwégét                      Déwégéjek

The one who sings                              Négmot                       Négmojek

Basic stuff ekedyek


Ked                to say s.t.

Kedo               h/s is saying s.t.

Ndekto             I am saying s.t.

Gdekto             you are saying s.t.

Kedwik             they are saying s.t.

Some phrases and questions:

Ni je ektot o         what is he/she saying?

Ni je ektoyen         what are you saying?

Ni je ga kedyan       what did I say?

Ni je ga kedyen       what did you say?

Ni je ektowat         what are they saying?

Ni je wa kedwat       what are they going to say?

Wi kedwik wa je byayak they are going to say s.t. when we get there.

Wi ye I, wa kedyan    that’s what I’m going to say.

Wi ye I, wa kedwat    that’s what they’re going to say.

Wi ye I nda dena          that is what I told him/her.

Ngi dena                  I told him/her

Ngi dena a’o ma she na but I told him/her

Widmo a’o wa kedyen       tell him/her what you’re going to say

Some more phrases:

Iw, ga kdot            that’s what he/she said

Iw, ga kedyan         that’s what I said

Iw, ga kedyen         that’s what you said.

Iw, ga kedwat         that’s what they said.

Iw, ga kedwat neko    that’s what they used to say.

Gda ket ne ode        can you say this?

Ni je ode da kedyan   how would I say this?

Ni je ode da kedyen   how would you say this?

Ni je ode ezh ne kadek what is this called?

Ni je node ezh ne kadek   what are these called?

Ni je nda zhen kadmen ode cup

                  What would we call this cup? (we-u)

Ni je gda shen kadyen ode cup

                  What would you call this cup?

Gwa begasen she zhna, nda zhen kadan

                  Gwa begasen, I would call it

Ni je node gda zhen kadyen node dishes

                  What would you call these dishes?

Desnagnen she zhna, nda zhen kadanen

                      Dishes I would call them.

Ni je ezh ne kasyen       what are you called/what is your name?

Ni je ezh ne kaswat       what are they called?

Ni je ezh ne kazyen       what are you called?

Ni je ezh ne kazot o      what is that person called?

Luke Warmwater zhen kazo  Luke Warmwater he is called.

Yabwam mbish zhen kazo “                          “

Ni je o yawet         who is he/she?

Ni je o                 who is that?

We ni je gi yawjek    who are they?

Ni je gi

Wegwni je I yawek     what is that?

Ni je I

Gokbenagen I yawen    it is a basket

Ni je ni yawek        what are those?

Ni je ni

Gokbenagnen ni yawnon     those are baskets

Dasgen je na a o kewezi ni je pi ewabmayen

Shake hands with that old man when you see him.

Gnestoto ne            do you understand me?

Gnestetan ne          do you understand it?

Gnestotwa ne          do you understand him/her?

Gnestotwak ne          do you understand them?

Gnestota gwnan ne     does he/she understand us?

Gnestota gwnanek ne   do they understand us?

Wnestetan             he/she understands it

                      (what is being said)

Wnestotwan           he/she understands him/her

Cho, gneste tosnon     I don’t understand you.

Cho, gneste totwa     I don’t understand him/her.

Cho, gneste totwak gi I don’t understand them.

Cho wi she, gneste tosnon gode weshkjek ngom.

I don’t really understand these young people of today.

Ni je etse dbuh gnek      what time is it?

Ni je tso yawek           what time is it, but could also mean, how many are there?

Some time phrases:

Ngodek                at one time

Ngodek ga zhe webek   it happened at one time

Ngodek zhna zhi       some day

Ngodek na              for once

Nangodgen              sometime/once in awhile

Wa wika            later/once in awhile/now and then/not often

Bama                   wait

Bama pi               later

Nagech                later

Bama shkejimeyek       later on

Ngoji mana            sometime/somewhere around

Gisneget               it was hard times

Bnewi                 a long time ago

Bnewi pi               a long time ago

Megwe pi               a long time ago/could be far away too

Bnoch                 far away

Gaga/mami             soon

Nomek                 a little while

Pene                   always

Nomye                 a little while ago

Njeshek               just now

Odo pi                at this time

Ode zhe pi            right now

Mine pi               another time

Cho wi pi             never

Cho wika               never

Cho she gego           nothing/zero

Cho wi she gego        it’s nothing really

Chom she               not yet

Kwech                  yet

Ibe pi                over there

Ezhi pi               way over there

Some exclamations:

Mno nes               goodness!

Nmno nes               my goodness!

Watiya                gosh, my god, geez, holy wa!

Mamkatkemek           same as above, used by women folk.

Mamkaz                amazed at s.t., surprised at s.t.

Mamkadenma            surprised at h/h

Mamkadendat           surprised at s.t.

Kwansekemek            registering surprise at s.t.

Kyetnam               expression of surprise

Nshkwenwe’aye         surprised

Gshkonwenmat          surprised at s.o.

Gshkonwendek          surprised at s.t.

Gshkonwezet           to be surprised

Mbe                   a satisfied expression usually with a sigh.

Iw                that’s it, I’m done, it’s over, that’s all.

Ahau               ok, all right, oh,

I ye I         that’s it, that’s ok, that’s correct/right.

Wi ye I            same as above

Wi ye o            that’s the one, that’s h/h

Iw yedek           must be

Iwk she ye I       that’s the way it is

Iwk she anwek      well it’s better

Iw she anwe        so so, better I guess

Nemetsena          IDK

Nemetsena yedek    I really dk

Ngi                I did

Nge                I am about to

Nda                I could/can/would

Nwi                I will