An exercise in Wabma

WABMA

Wabma                           to see someone

Wabmasi                         refers to seeing someone/must be preceded by

                                      proper prefixes.

Wabmak                         to see them

Wabmasik                       refers to seeing someone/must be preceded by

                                      proper prefixes.

Nwabma                         I see him/her

Nwabmak                       I see them

Gwabma                         you see him/her

Gwabmak                       you see them

Wabman                         he/she sees him/her

Nwabmasi                      reference to seeing him/her/needs prefix cho

                                      in front of it

Nwabmasik                    I don’t see them/needs cho in front

Gwabmasi                      you don’t see him/her  (cho)

Gwabmasik                    you don’t see them  (cho)

Wabmasin                       he/she doesn’t see him/her/them  (cho)

Wabmasimen                  we didn’t or are not going to see h/h or them

                                      needs prefix cho                                

Wabmek                         see (singular) Joe ngi bye wabmek

Wabmegok                     see (they)

Nwabmek                       he/she sees me

Nwabmegok                   they see me

Gwabmek                       he/she sees you

Gwabmegok                   they see you

Gwabmegwnan              he/she sees us

Gwabmegwnanek           they see us

Gwabmegomen              we are seen

Gwabmegwak                he/she sees you people             

Wabma                           to see someone (animate)

Sentences: (translate and fill in the blanks)

Jo ngi ______________ o kwe.

I didn’t see the woman.

Nwi o ____________ o nene.

I’m going to see the man.

Jo ne ggi o ______________ o negdosha?

You didn’t go see the horse.

Ggi o _____________ne o gdanses.

Did you go see your little daughter?

Ngi __________o ndanes.

I went to see my daughter.

Wabek ne gwi ______________o negdosha.

Are you going to see the horse tomorrow?

Gwi o wabma ne o nemosh? ________________________________________________

I saw the dog yesterday. ____________________________________________________

I’m going to see the horse tomorrow.

________________________________________________________________________

I don’t see him.___________________________________________________________

Nmeshomes nwi o wabma.

________________________________________________________________________

Ggi o wabma ne__________________________________________________________

Did you go see your grandfather?

No, I didn’t go see my grandfather.

_______________________________________________________________________

Wnago ___________ggi_______________o__________________________________?

Did you see your grandfather yesterday?

Jo ne John ggi wabmasi?_________________________________________________

Did you see John?______________________________________________________

Multiple choice:

Odankeygo.

            A. 2 people plus 1

            B. plural including

            C. singular excluding

Gwabegas.

            A. horse

            B. a man

            C. cup

Modey.

            A. moody

            B. dirty butt

            C. bottle

Boston.

            A. mail it

            B. an eastern city

            C. load it

Wabmak               to see more than one. (animate)

David and Terry nwi o wabmak

I’m going to go see David and Terry.

Ggi wabmak ne gi wabozoyek

Did you see those rabbits?

Nwi o wabmak gi dabyanek

I’m going to go look at those cars.

Gbye wabmak ne gi negdoshayek

Are you here to look at the horses?

WABMA

Wabma                           to see someone

Wabmasi                         refers to seeing someone/must be preceded by

                                      proper prefixes.

Wabmak                         to see them

Wabmasik                       refers to seeing someone/must be preceded by

                                      proper prefixes.

Nwabma                         I see him/her

Nwabmak                       I see them

Gwabma                         you see him/her

Gwabmak                       you see them

Wabman                         he/she sees him/her

Nwabmasi                      reference to seeing him/her/needs prefix cho

                                      in front of it

Nwabmasik                    I don’t see them/needs cho in front

Gwabmasi                      you don’t see him/her  (cho)

Gwabmasik                    you don’t see them  (cho)

Wabmasin                       he/she doesn’t see him/her/them  (cho)

Wabmasimen                  we didn’t or are not going to see h/h or them

                                      needs prefix cho                                

Wabmek                         see (singular) Joe ngi bye wabmek

Wabmegok                     see (they)

Nwabmek                       he/she sees me

Nwabmegok                   they see me

Gwabmek                       he/she sees you

Gwabmegok                   they see you

Gwabmegwnan              he/she sees us

Gwabmegwnanek           they see us

Gwabmegomen              we are seen

Gwabmegwak                he/she sees you people             

Wabma                           to see someone (animate)

Sentences: (translate and fill in the blanks)

Jo ngi ______________ o kwe.

I didn’t see the woman.

Nwi o ____________ o nene.

I’m going to see the man.

Jo ne ggi o ______________ o negdosha?

You didn’t go see the horse.

Ggi o _____________ne o gdanses.

Did you go see your little daughter?

Ngi __________o ndanes.

I went to see my daughter.

Wabek ne gwi ______________o negdosha.

Are you going to see the horse tomorrow?

Gwi o wabma ne o nemosh? ________________________________________________

I saw the dog yesterday. ____________________________________________________

I’m going to see the horse tomorrow.

________________________________________________________________________

I don’t see him.___________________________________________________________

Nmeshomes nwi o wabma.

________________________________________________________________________

Ggi o wabma ne__________________________________________________________

Did you go see your grandfather?

No, I didn’t go see my grandfather.

_______________________________________________________________________

Wnago ___________ggi_______________o__________________________________?

Did you see your grandfather yesterday?

Jo ne John ggi wabmasi?_________________________________________________

Did you see John?______________________________________________________

Multiple choice:

Odankeygo.

            A. 2 people plus 1

            B. plural including

            C. singular excluding

Gwabegas.

            A. horse

            B. a man

            C. cup

Modey.

            A. moody

            B. dirty butt

            C. bottle

Boston.

            A. mail it

            B. an eastern city

            C. load it

Wabmak               to see more than one. (animate)

David and Terry nwi o wabmak

I’m going to go see David and Terry.

Ggi wabmak ne gi wabozoyek

Did you see those rabbits?

Nwi o wabmak gi dabyanek

I’m going to go look at those cars.

Gbye wabmak ne gi negdoshayek

Are you here to look at the horses?

Some facts about the Potawatomi language

Let’s use it before we lose it!

Bodéwadmi Zheshmowen

Basic lesson on verb forms, conjugation, and tenses.

The Neshnabé language is easy to use and learn. Beginning students must learn that parts of speech define the following:

    What is happening?          Defined by verbs.

    Who is doing the action?    Defined by emphatic pronouns.

    When is/did it occur?       Defined by tense indicators.

There are four primary types of verbs used in Bodéwadmimwen. Beginners are encouraged to gain a good understanding of VAI verb types.

    VAI – verb animate intransitive.

The verb action stays with the one(s) doing it, (subject) it does not transfer (to an object).

Example 1:    I see            Nwabjegé  (VAI)

In the example, the verb is “see” and it is intransitive. This type of verb differs from the two transitive forms shown below.

Example 2:    I see the man.   Nwabma nene  (VTA)

In this example, the verb is “see” and action is transferring to an animate object – man. The subject is “I” the verb is “see” and the object is “man”.

Example 3:    I see the light. Nwabdan waskonénjegen   (VTI)

In this example, the verb is “see” and the action is transferring to an inanimate object – light. The subject is “I” the verb is “see” and the object is “light”.

Conjugation Patterns  

This is a system of attaching either prefixes, prefixes and suffixes, or suffix to describe “who” is doing the verb action. Learn the following affirmative statements.

Nbé – he/she is sleeping/sleeps

Nde nba/nneba    gde nba/gneba    nbé/nbéwag    nde nebamen    gde nebamen       

Nin              gin              win           ninan          ginan

I, me            you              he/she        us (we – u)    us (we + u)

gde nebam/gnebam    nebég/nbéwag

ginwa               winwa

ya all              them 

(Present Tense) – he/she is walking/walks

I am walking                 nde bmosé/nbémsé

You are walking              gde bmose/gbémsé 

He/she is walking            bmosé/bmoséwag

We (excl.) are walking       nde bmosémen/nbémsémen

we (incl.) are walking       gde bmosémen/gbémsémen

Ya all are walking           gde bmosém/gbémsém

They are walking             bmoség

Tense markers: gi – past (did), wi – future indefinte (will), ga/da – future definite (shall). We use tense markers to define when something is/did/or is going to occur. Simply drop the tense marker into the statement between the personal pronoun and the verb. These are some of the tense markers.

Examples using tense markers.

Ngi bmosé            I did walk.

Ggi bmosé            You did walk.

Wibmosé              He/she will walk.

Nwi bmosémen         We (excl.) will walk.

Gwi bmosémen         We (incl.) shall walk.

Gwi bmosém           Ya all shall walk.

Da bmoséwag          They can/could/should walk 

Gi – did – past tense

I worked                      Ngi mikjéwi/ngimikjéwi

You worked                    Ggi mikjéwi/ggimikjéwi

He/she worked                 Mikjéwid/mikjéwiwad

We (excl.) worked             Ngi mikjéwimen/ngimikjéwimen

We (incl.) worked             Ggi mikjéwimen/ggimikjéwimen

Ya all worked                 Ggi mikjéwim/ggimikjéwim

They worked                   Mikjéwiwat

Wi – will/want to – future tense

I will leave                  Nwi maji/nwimaji

You will leave                Gwi maji/gwimaji

He/she will leave             Maji/majiwag

We (excl.) will leave         Nwi majimen/nwimajimen

We (incl.) will leave         Gwi majimen/gwikmajimen

Ya all will leave             Gwi majim/gwimajim

They will leave               Majiwig

Ga/Da – shall – future definite tense

I shall hunt                  Nda giwsé/ndagiwsé

You shall hunt                Gda giwsé/gdagiwsé

He/she shall hunt             Giwsé/giwséwag

We (excl.) shall hunt         Nda giwsémen/ndagiwsémen

We (incl.) shall hunt         Gda giwsémen/gdagiwsémen

Ya all shall hunt             Gda giwsém/gdagiwsém

They shall hunt               Giwséwig

Commonly Used VAI Verbs

He/she leaves                Maji

He/she drinks                Mnekwé

He/she eats                  Wisne

He/she runs                  Bémbeto

He/she hunts                 Giwsé

He/she works                 Mikjéwi

He/she dances                Nimedi

He/she sings                 Négmo

He/she visits                Mbwachewé

He/she buys                  Dawé

He/she gambles               Tadi

He/she drives                Wénkwéngé

Ahau, Shketon ode zheshmowen bwamshe éngetoyak

Ok, Use this language before we lose it!

A sample from a book we did called, Bodewadmi Deshemwen

Nin  (I)   Gin   (you)   Win  (he/she)

Ni je na gin wa           how are ya all?

Ni je na ge win wa        how are they?

Ni je na o                how is he/she?

Ni je na gden wemagnek    how are your relatives?

Ni je na ggetsimnanek     how are your parents?

Ni je na ga zhikayen      how did you make out?

Ni je e’zhechkeyen        what are you doing?

Ni je e’zhechkeye’k       what are ya all doing?

Response: I am good/well/fine.

Nin          nde mno bmades   I am g/w

Gin          gde mno bmades   you are g/w

Win          mno bmadse       s/h is g/w

Ninan        mno bmatsemen    we are g/w

Ginan        gmno bmatsemen   we are g/w

Ginwa        gmno bmadsem     ya all are g/w

Winwa        mno bmatsik      they are g/w

Clans

Mko/mkwa              bear

Jigwe’k               thunder

Gigo                  fish

Nanimwe’              coyote

Moewe’                wolf

Mshike’               turtle

Bkoj bsheke           buffalo

Kno                   eagle

Me’gisi

Mge’shwash

Mbeshkno

Mshiwe’               elk

Wawashkeshi           deer

Seksi             

Wasi                  bullhead/catfish

Nabe                  man

mskwabiskeno          red tailed hawk

Name’                 sturgeon

Negdosha              horse

Bezhgokshi

What is your clan?

Gin              we ni je (o) gdote’m

                 What is your clan

Win              we ni je (o) wdote’men

                 What is h/h clan

Ninan            we ni je (o) ndote’mnan  (excl.)

                 What is our clan

Ginan            we ni je (o) gdote’mnan  (incl.)

                 What is our clan

Ginwa            we ni je (o) gdote’mwa  (ya all)

                 What is ya alls’ clan

Winwa            we ni je (o) wdotemwan

                 What is their clan

Some more on clan(s)

Nin              _________ndote’m

                 My clan is               

Gin              _________gdote’m

                 Your clan is

Win              _________wdote’men

                 H/h clan is

Ninan            _________ndote’mnan

                 Our clan is  (excl.)

Ginan            _________gdote’mnan

                 Our clan is  (incl.)

Ginwa            _________gdote’mwa

                 Ya alls’ clan is

Winwa            _________wdote’mwan

                 Their clan is

Berries for clans:

De’men           strawberry

Mskomen          raspberry

Minen            blueberry

Mkede’men        blackberry

Where do you live?

Gin              ni pi je e’je dayen

                 Where do you live

Win              ni pi je e’je dat

                 Where does h/s live

Ninan            ni pi je e’je ndaygo

                 Where do we live  (excl.)

Ginan            ni pi je e’je gdaygo

                 Where do we live  (incl.)

Ginwa            ni pi je e’je daye’k

                 Where do ya all live

Winwa            ni pi je e’je wda wat

                 Where do they live

I live in:

Nin              __________nde da/e’dayan

                 I live in

Gin              __________gde da/e’dayen

                 You live in

Win              __________wdawat/e’dawat

                 H/s lives in

Ninan            __________nde damen

                 We live in  (excl.)

Ginan            __________gde damen

                 We live in  (incl.)

Ginwa            __________gde dam

                 Ya all live in

Winwa            __________wdawat/e’dawat

                 They live in

Where are you from?

Gin              ni pi je wech byayen

                 Where are you from

Win              ni pi wech byat o

                 Where is h/s from

Ninan            ni pi je wech byayak

                 Where are we from  (excl.)

Ginan            ni pi je wech byaygo

                 Where are we from  (incl.)

Ginwa            ni pi je wech byaye’k

                 Where are ya all from

Winwa            ni pi je wech byawat

                 Where are they from

I am from:

Nin              ________ndochbya

                 I am from

Gin              ________gdochbya

                 You are from

Win              ________wje bye’wak

                 H/s is from

Ninan            ________ndoch byamen

                 We are from  (excl.)

Ginan            ________gdoch byamen

                 We are from  (incl.)

Ginwa            ________gdoch byam

                 Ya all are from

Winwa            ________wje bye’k

                 They are from

Some simple conversations to learn

Weye ne gi wabdan ne i gbiskewagen?                  Has anyone seen my coat?

Weye ne gi wabma o ngwes?                                      Has anyone seen my son?

Ni je pi éwi bidgéyak?                                                    When are we going in?

Ni je pi éwi wisniyak?                                                     When do we eat?

Nedwendan ne anet gapi?                                           You want some coffee?

Nedwendan ne anet mkekwabo?                             You want some coffee?

Nedwendan ne i pwagasen?                                       You want a cigarette?

Nedwendan ne éwdeméyen?                                     You want to smoke?

Ni je épandewebneyen?                                                               What are you looking for?

Énedwendayan anet gapi.                                            I want some coffee

Énedwendayan anet wisnewen.                                I want some food

Mishen i ziwtagen                                                           Give me the salt

Gégo ziwtagnegékén i wisnewen                              Don’t salt the food

Zheton I kewewen                                                          Make a flag

Zheton I wizaw kewewen                                             Make a yellow flag

Zheton nyéwo kewewnen                                            Make four flags

Gdesa ne anet sémau?                                                  Do you have any tobacco?

Cho nensémau ndesasi                                                 I don’t have any tobacco

Éhe, nde sa nensémau                                                   Yes, I have tobacco

Kyénep byan shote!                                                        Quick come here!

Kyénep byak shote!                                                        Quick come here! (plural)

Ni je esh témget zagech?                                              What’s it like outside?

Wi gméyamget ne ngom?                                            Will it rain today?

Ni pi je i zakmogemek?                                                 Where is the bathroom (outhouse)?

Ni pi je i wisnewgemek?                                                Where is the kitchen?

Ndeton anet mingaswenen                                         I have some gifts

Ngi byédonen node mingaswenen                           I brought these gifts

Ébgednoyan ode sémau                                                I put down /offer this tobacco

Ébgednoyan ode nibiwen                                             I put down/offer this water

Nwi ngemo                                                                         I will sing

Nwi madmo                                                                       I will pray

Gwi madmomen                                                              We will pray

Ge Wisnemen                                                                   Let’s eat

Ge binakjegémen                                                            Let’s clean up

Ge bidgémen                                                                     Let’s go in

Ge wéwébdamen                                                            Let’s begin

Gwi bokpedon ne?                                                          You want a break?

Ode se ndekwéyom                                                        This is my wife

Ode se ndeniyem                                                            This is my husband

Nénmoshen i mbish                                                        Hand me the water

Nénmoshen i wiyas                                                         Hand me the meat

Nénmoshen i kemsagen                                                 Hand me that ax

Nénmoshen i jishtegen                                                 Hand me that broom

Nénmoshen I déwégen                                                 Hand me that drum

Gi byédon ne I déwégen?                                             Did you bring a drum?

Gi byédon ne anet gishki?                                             Did you bring some cedar?

Nebyégén ode                                                                  Write this

Gégo nebyégén                                                                Don’t write

Daga mishen gi penik                                                     Please give me the potatoes

Daga byédweshen anet mbish                                    Please bring me some water

Daga mina i kemsagen o Mkwabjegé                      Please give the ax to Mkwabjegé

Daga nénmo i mbop o Kwénago                                Please hand the soup to Kwénago

Daga mina i kewéwen o Wawashkeshikwé           Please hand that flag to Wawashkeshikwé

Daga mina i gishkbojgen o Mzekwagé                     Please hand that saw to Mzekwagé

Ni je éndebendat ode?                                                  Who does this belong to?

Ni je éndebendat ode mkesen?                                 Who does this shoe belong to?

Ni je éndebendat ode wiwkwan?                              Who does this cap belong to?

I yé I ne?                                                                              Is that it?

Éhe, I yé I                                                                             Yes, that’s it

I yé o ne?                                                                             Is that him/her?

Éhe, I yé o                                                                           Yes, that’s h/h

Jibteben shote                                                                  Sit here

Jibtebek ibe                                                                        Sit there (plural)

Jayék ginwa ne nodwak?                                              Can you all hear?

Jayék ginwa ne nodweshen?                                       Can you all hear me?

Éhé nnodan                                                                        Yes, I can hear

Cho wi she nnodansi                                                       I can’t hear

Éhé nnodwen                                                                    Yes, I hear you

Cho wi she nnodwesi                                                     I can’t hear you

Gi nodagé ne?                                                                   Did you hear (news)

Gi wabdan ne ode?                                                         Did you see this?

Gi wabma ne o?                                                               Did you see h/h?

Ngi wabdan i                                                                      I saw it

Cho ngi wabdasin i                                                           I didn’t see it

Ngi nodagé                                                                         I heard

Cho ngi nodagési                                                              I didn’t hear

Ngi zhechké I                                                                      I did that

Cho ngi zhechkési I                                                          I didn’t do that

Ni je éschegéyen?                                                           What are you doing?

Ni je wa zhechkéyak wabek?                                      What will we do tomorrow?

Ni je ga zhechkéyak wnago?                                       What did we do yesterday?

Gkendan ne i?                                                                   Do you know that?

Éhe ngekendan I                                                              Yes, I know that

Gkenma ne o?                                                                   Do you know h/h?

Éhe ngekenma o                                                              Yes, I know h/h

Humor for the New Year

A Story On Faith

There came a time when three men of the cloth decided they would all go fishing together and become better friends to aid in their individual ministries. A Lutheran minister, A Presbyterian minister and a Baptist minister had all concluded they needed to demonstrate Christian Bother Hood for their congregations.

They struck out to a lake they all knew about and commenced fishing and visiting. After some time had passed and not much action on their lines, the Baptist minister suddenly arose, stepped out of the boat and walked across the water, to end up sitting on the bank of the lake.

The other two sat there for a short time, and then the Presbyterian fellow decided he would join the Baptist on the bank of the lake, whereupon he stepped out of the boat and strode across the water. They sat alongside each other visiting, watching the Lutheran fellow as he continued to fish.

The Lutheran man sat there thinking to himself all the while that if they had that kind of faith, then he should exercise his own and join them. He stood up in the boat, stepped out on the water and promptly sank. The other two looked at the scene and both said almost simultaneously, “Reckon we should have told him where the rocks were?”

I guess there should be a moral to such a tale.

Think before you step out on faith.

Some thoughts for the New Year

A glossary of some more words.

Neshnabe kendaswen      traditional neshnabe knowledge.

Neshnabe                the good being (male) created from nothing and                          lowered down to this earth. Name of all people                          who are descendants of the people who speak the                       various dialects of neshnabemwen

Mjina neshnabek         there are those who think they are neshnabek and                        by all they try to do and act, they will become                         more neshnabe-like and/or spiritual. These tend                        to act as though they are more spiritual than                               others of their kind. Proud and haughty are                               they!

Neshnabemwen            The Neshnabe language/The Three Fires language

Sema                    tobacco

Sen                     rock/stone

Atsokan                 traditional cultural story

Ezhikenimnonadzed bemadzet     The study of the behavior of life

Bemadzet                a human being

Bsendagmowen            acquired knowledge, learning from listening

Bgosenjegewen           things hoped for

Zhewenmeshen            pity me/have mercy on me

Zhewenmeshnak           have pity on us/also mercy

Zhawenmengomen          they are jealous of us

Kcheneshnabe/kcheneshnabek     The Ancient Ones

Epitsewat neshnabek           The Ancient Ones

Gete Neshnabek          The real ones

Wakendemwajek           the wise ones

Debwewen                truth

Gwekwadzewen            honesty

Dewegen                 drum

Edneswen                Natural Law, natural way of behavior

Segmekwe                Mother Earth

Eyawyan                 identity, the way all is in me or every way I am

                        of my being

Kche mkede mko          large black bear

Gichidakwe              female ceremonial helper

Getesewen               intuition, the navel way, mother connection to                                              you

Gwabminjegewen          knowledge from observation

Kshemenedo              Great Spirit

Mamogosnan              The Creator

Kendaswen               knowledge

Kenjegadewen            reality, a known truth

Kimingoa anwe kendaswen        The original instructions given to the

                               Neshnabek by Kshemenedo

Mkedeke                 the act of fasting

Mkedeke’w’egan          a fasting lodge

Mkedekewen              fasting or vision quest, the way of the quest.

                        We say this because the spiritual people who put                        us in the ways of “extreme danger”, or “path of                         the fire”, literally place us in harms’ way when                      we go out to fast. That is why we place the                              smudges of black charcoal on each cheek and                           forhead of the “quester.

                        To go before the SPIRIT in such a manner with                           the imploring we do when we cry out for a                               vision, or a gift, in those lonely places is to                         be willing to die for the sake of the people.                          i.e., so the common people may live. So the                          “vision quest” has nothing to do with individual                    effort or EGO. In fact, the EGO of the quester                          must die out. It is the way of death to man’s                           spirit or control over his pitiful life, so the                         real spirit inside him can live and do the will                        of the SPIRIT for the common people. It is a way                      of self sacrifice to bring back the power of the                        SPIRIT for one’s people, so they can all live!

Mnedo wabewen           Revealed Knowledge

Mnedo                   a spirit

Mnedoke                 conduct a ceremony

Mendokaswenen           a ceremony

Mnedoskwim’mendamowen   Spirit memory/blood memory

                        Stitched into your spirit

                        The knowledge that enters this world when one’s

                        spirit fuses with the physical body, spirit                             idenity    

Menjemendamowen         memory, hold and stitch together

Mnobmadzewen            The Way of the Good Life, In order to have a                            good life one must have a goal. This goal is to                         be free from illness, to live to the fullest.

                        Bemadzewen is based on a concept of health and                          good living. One must work on prevention and not                        only healing. It is a Holy Life. One must eat                          well, act well, and live physically, mentally,                           emotionally well. Emotional well being is a key                      to Bemadzewen.

Mshekeke                medicine that comes from the roots of Earth

Mshkekiwen              the way of medicine

Meshomes                Grandfather

Debwetawen              belief, the truth that is evident in the way of                         action. One cannot know the truth unless one has                        seen or experienced it in a direct way                                (physically or spiritually).

Debwewen                Faith, the heart that all relates to,                                   truthfulness.

Nedendowen              responsibility.

Nagdewendemwen          A spiritual vision/or deeper level thoughts

Apwewen/nademowen       Vivid dream/lucid

Nbwakawen               wisdom, from the root-nebwa-in the kindness of                          putting yourself backwards but at the same time                         of bringing forward the wisdom one carries.

                        Thinking back, bringing forward and stitching                           all together; i.e., life knowledge (Elders).

Nendamowen              forget, unstitched.

Nenmowen                thought.

Nisawai’igwan           at the center, Nawai: center.

Nswe shkode Midewigan   The Three Fires Medicine Society

Noden                   wind, also the old term to describe the workings                        of the mind.

Nokmes                  My Grandmother

Nwendeman               choice, browsing in one’s thoughts

Nwennamdanwen           making a choice

De’h                    heart

Odewegen                the way of the drum

Shkabewes               the new one, male ceremonial helper

Gichidakwe              female ceremonial helper

Wenizhejegeyan          free will, the way I am going to do things

Wanen’enema             will, has to do with the ability to think                               independently.

Wigiwamatek             lodge pole

Zagidewen               love/caring, all of something emanating out of                          you. Not the same as the English “make love”,                           sexual, but rather of caring. It is something                           based on mutual respect. You can feel it but you                     cannot touch it. It is all of you filling the                              heart of another, mnadenemwenen, feeding that                          heart with the thought of something. Out of

                        Zagidewen a human being is able to heal him/her                         self.

Zhishigwen              shaker, rattle.

Shkebdagen              shooter, as in medicine dance ceremony.

Some words to consider:

Inendeman               what I think

Inendagwet              what I permit

Inendagzewen            what is permitted

Nagdewendemwen          deeper level thoughts, often what one does not

                        share with others easily for whatever reason,

                        or reasons. These deeper level thoughts are

                        sometimes somewhat embarrassing to reveal for

                        the individual, but are known by the SPIRIT and

                        the Interpreters/Translators.

                        The stuff we keep inside is what makes up who we                                                  really are and what our true identity is.                               (Eyawyan)

Kchenendezwen           proud, haughty thoughts of oneself!

Shiwnendezwen           mean, ugly, vicious thoughts culminating in                             that type of actions toward another or                                  others. Generally a mean spirited and dishonest                         action.

Shiwnadzewen            verb describing the above actions of a person                           like that. (Shiwze: mean, cruel, without mercy)

Gishkteg’gazwen         Judgment! Any action(s) the Spirit/spirits take                         against a person who is bad or acting contrary                          to what is believed and embraced by a like-                          minded group. This is thought to include                                    witchcraft of any kind and any mean actions that                         are thought out and carried out against another.

                        The old people used to tell us when a person

                        knowingly starts out on the wrong path and keeps

                        going down that way, it is like a person who                            grabs the top of a small sapling and bends it                           all the way to the ground, then lets it go,

                        whereupon it springs back at him/her slapping

                        with full fury at that person again and again.

                        From this story, they would tell us the Spirit’s

                        word or judgment is “springy”.

Gemazhechkewen          Sovereignty! Usually refers to the sovereignty                          of the Spirit!

Yanshitmawat            they became discouraged

Shiwze                  he/she is fierce/mean/cruel

Shiwzik                 they are fierce/mean/cruel

Gzhiptem                you are hard headed

Gzhiptemwik             they are hard headed

Gzhiptemwenen           hard headedness/stubborn-ness,           

                        usually referring to a state of being;

                        that of being stiff necked, beyond reasoning and                        usually of an impassable nature; very stubborn.

Gdemages                you are poor

Gdemagzewen             a state of being poor and not realizing how poor                        one can be. Said to be without mercy, thus                              without love, humility, truth, honesty, wisdom,                         bravery and respect; even self respect.

Widoktadwen             that sense of community, togetherness, that                             innate sense of tribalism that permeates a group                        that one can sense long before they can                                verbalize on it. It has a sense of love and                               belonging that others who do not have it can                               feel with their spiritual centers; the soul,                               spirit, and body each have the (5) senses active                        within them;

                        touch, taste, smell, feel, hear and more.

Widoko                  to interact, commune with; usually on all                               levels when used in a spiritual context.

Gambojek                those that passed away, that walked on, those                           that died.

Gambot                  he/she who died or walked on.

Nbowen                  to pass from the scene, to walk on, but in                              spiritual application, it has to do with dying                          out to the self, so the gete neyaw can live.                          i.e., the real man/woman self in all of us. It                             is said in the old days, this concept was taught                         to all young boys and girls who were going out                           to vision quest. (mkedekewen).

                        Young people were taught to allow old habits to                         die out so the real self could live and be                              invigorated with a new heart, soul, spirit so as                        to acquire new habits pursuant to the teachings                        of the early neshnabek.

98 VAI verbs for consideration or learning

AI Verbs List

  1. Maji- he/she is leaving
  2. Giwse- he/she is hunting
  3. Waswa- he/she is night shining
  4. myan nage- he/she wounded (something)
  5. pshin ge- he/she is skinning
  6. Gwedemojge- he/she is fishing
  7. Zhya- he/she goes
  8. Zasksokwe- he/she is frying (something)
  9. Meng ji- he/she is burping
  10. mnekwe- he/she is drinking.
  11. gashknabagwe- he/she is thirsty
  12. odanke- he/she is going to town.
  13. wisne- he/she is eating
  14. Bodwe- he/she is making a fire
  15. ndodaske- he/she is praying/ asking in a beseeching way
  16. Madmo- he/she is praying
  17. Gzabyenge- he/she is driving
  18. boze- he/she is riding (like a car)
  19. pam boze- he/she is riding around in a car
  20. Ngi kich ndebe- I have a sore head
  21. nGi kich jane- I have a sore nose.
  22. nGi gich dam ken- I have a sore jaw
  23. bmose- he/she is walking
  24. bmepto- he/she is running
  25. dgweshen- he/she is arriving
  26. pa mad ze- he/she is traveling
  27. wje bye- he/she comes from
  28. wzhita- he/she is ready
  29. bgumse- he/she arrives by foot
  30. bgum bto- he/she arrives running
  31. nshiwboze- he/she is going fast
  32. ma da bze- he/she joins up with it (traveling)
  33. ngashka- he/she is stopping
  34. ngash mi ye- he/she is being stopped
  35. ngabzo- he/she is stopping in a car
  36. neshkwe bzo- he/she is pulling off/turning off the road
  37. wmet se shen- h/she is really late
  38. giwani- he/she loses his/her way
  39. ngeshen- he/she is lost
  40. bzendage- he/she listens in ( to a meeting)
  41. mzhen ga zo- he/she is being arrested
  42. mgugno- he/she is big
  43. mgabe wze- he/she is large/fat
  44. nshiwabewze- h/she is quite large
  45. gishgamo- he/she is fat
  46. gachabewze- he/she is skinny
  47. gachi uh- he/she is small ngachi- I am small
  48. mok shka- he/she emerges
  49. mno wabmenagwze- he/she looks pretty/good
  50. nji wnagweze- he/she looks homely
  51. gnoze- he/she is tall  ngnos- I am tall
  52. tkoze- he/she is short  Ntkos- I am short
  53. Zhiptum- he/she is hardheaded/ stubborn
  54. zegze- he/she is scared Nzeges- I am scared
  55. Kwe’taje- he/she is afraid/ meek (for no apparent reason)
  56. Kyebadze- he/she is foolish        nge gyebades- I am foolish
  57. agwa dze- he/she is even more foolish             ndagwades- I am more foolish
  58. giwnadze- he/she is insane/crazy ngiwnades- I am insane/crazy
  59. mbwa ka o- he/she is smart Nbwaka- I am smart
  60. wgi w sadendem- he/she is feeling sorrowful/bad/unnecessary ngi wsa dendum- I
  61. Ntagze- he/she is sad/lonely  ntages- I am sad/loney
  62. Kwansegze- he/she is really stingy nge gwanse ges- I am really stingy
  63. Mo wak- he/she is crying nmo- I am crying

64.mensheze- he/she is ashamed/ embarrassed nmen shes- I am

65.Nchiwenmo- he/she is glad/happy nchiwenmo- I am happy

66.ge zhe zo- he/she is warm  ngezhes- I am warm(When it is hot out)

67. tkeze- he/she is cool  ndetkes- I am cool

68. bi ge je- he/she is cold  nbigech. I’m cold

69. Nweshmo- he/she is resting

70. Zhe nagwze- he/she looks like

71. wji chib de esh ka- he/she has heart palpitations

72. Zhe webze- something is the matter with him/her

73. gi kidze- he/she is sore ngi kides- I am sore.

74. wpukshen- he/she falls down ngi pukshen- I fell down

75. wmen she gojen- he/she falls and is embarrassed ngimen she gojen- I fell and was

76.gbes gwe- he/she is hoarse  ngbes gwe- I am hoarse

77. jachamo- he/she is sneezing njacham- I am going to sneeze.

78. Gziyabdeo- he/she is brushing him/her teeth nwigziyabde- I am going to brush my

79.  mosh o- he/she is cutting hair nmosh- I am cutting hair

80. gzhi bi- he/she is itchy ngzhi bi- I am itchy.

81. askonye- he/she is changing cloths nde askonye- I am changing cloths

82. bij dase- he/she is changing socks nbijdase- I am changing socks

83. wbi tkezne- he/she is putting on shoes nbitkezne- I am putting on shoes

84. wgi tkezne- he/she is taking of shoes   ngitkezne- I am taking of  my shoes

85. wda b’an/en- he/she is untying it/those nda b’an/en I am untying it/those

86. biskonye- he/she is dressing nbiskonye- I am dressing

87. mbe- he/she is sleeping   nwimba- I am going to go to sleeping

88.apwe- he/she is dreaming ngiapwe- I was dreaming

89. bzegwi- he/she is rising nwi bzegwi- I am going to get up

90. doskaba- he/she opens his/her eyes ngidoskab- I opened my eyes

91.binchege- he/she is cleaning

92. jigedege- he/she is sweeping

93. gziskege- he/she is mopping

94.zho byege- he/she is painting

95. wzhege- he/she is building

96. Dbuh ge- he/she is paying

97. menezeo- he/she needs something nme nes- I need something

98. Wbokshka- he/she is broke mbokshka- I am broke

Know your verbs

AI Verb:  dokkwewe== to search for a partner

Independent Indicative

Standard Form                                Long Form   (English Pre-verb equivalent)

Ndokkwewe                                   Ndedokkwewe                       I

Gdokkwewe                                   Gdedokkwewe                    You

Wdokkwewe                                   Wdokkwewe                       S/He

Ndokkwewemen                            Ndedokkwewemen          We (-you)

Gdokkwewemen                            Gdedokkwewemen          We (+you)

Gdokkwewem                                Gdedokkwewem               You (pl.)

Dokkwewewik                                Dokkwewewik                   They

AI Verb:  jagzo== to burn

Independent Indicative

Standard Form                      Long Form   (English Pre-verb equivalent)

Njagas                                   Ndejagas                       I

Gjagas                                   Gdejagas                    You

Wjagzo                                  Wjagzo                       S/He

Njagzomen                           Ndejagazomen          We (-you)

Gjagzomen                           Gdejagazomen          We (+you)

Gjagazom                             Gdejagazom               You (pl.)

Jagazowik                             Jagazowik                   They

AI Verb: Nazo== to have a certain color

Independent Indicative

Standard Form                                Long Form   (English Pre-verb equivalent)

Nnazo                                              Ndenazo                      I

Gnazo                                              Gdenazo                    You

Wnazo                                              Wnazo                       S/He

Nnazomen                                       Ndenazomen            We (-you)

Gnazomen                                       Gdenazomen            We (+you)

Gnazom                                           Gdenazom               You (pl.)

Nazowik                                           nazowik                    They

AI Verb:  nijanse== to be expecting a child

Independent Indicative

Standard Form                                Long Form   (English Pre-verb equivalent)

Nnijanse                                        Ndenijanse                       I

Gnijanse                                        Gdenijanse                    You

Wnijanse                                        Wnijanse                        S/He

Nnijansemen                                 Ndenijansemen          We (-you)

Gnijansemen                                 Gdenijansemen          We (+you)

Gnijansem                                     Gdenijansem               You (pl.)

Nijansewik                                     Nijansewik                   They

AI Verb:  wanke== to dig

Independent Indicative

Standard Form                      Long Form   (English Pre-verb equivalent)

Nwanke                                 Ndewanke                       I

Gwanke                                 Gdewanke                    You

Wanke                                   Wanke                           S/He

Nwankemen                         Ndewankemen          We (-you)

Gwankemen                         Gdewankemen          We (+you)

Gwankem                             Gdewankem               You (pl.)

Wankek                                Wankek                      They

AI Verb:  wichewe== to accompany

Independent Indicative

Standard Form                                Long Form   (English Pre-verb equivalent)

Nwichewe                                        Ndewichewe                      I

Gwichewe                                        Gdewichewe                    You

Wichewe                                           Wichewe                           S/He

Nwichewemen                                 Ndewichewemen            We (-you)

Gwichewemen                                 Gdewichewemen            We (+you)

Gwichewem                                     Gdewichewem               You (pl.)

Wichewek                                        Wichewek                       They

AI Verb:  mikjewi== to work

Independent Indicative

Standard Form                                Long Form   (English Pre-verb equivalent)

Nmikjewi                                        Ndemikjewi                      I

Gmikjewi                                        Gdemikjewi                    You

Wmikjewi                                        Wmikjewi                       S/He

Nmikjewimen                                 Ndemikjewimen            We (-you)

Gmikjewimen                                 Gdemikjewimen            We (+you)

Gmikjewim                                     Gdemikjewim               You (pl.)

Mikjewik                                         Mikjewik                       They